The Caenorhabditis elegansCDT-2 ubiquitin ligase is required for attenuation of EGFR signalling in vulva precursor cells
© Poulin and Ahringer; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 31 March 2010
Accepted: 26 October 2010
Published: 26 October 2010
Attenuation of the EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) signalling cascade is crucial to control cell fate during development. A candidate-based RNAi approach in C. elegans identified CDT-2 as an attenuator of LET-23 (EGFR) signalling. Human CDT2 is a component of the conserved CDT2/CUL4/DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex that plays a critical role in DNA replication and G2/M checkpoint. Within this complex, CDT2 is responsible for substrate recognition. This ubiquitin ligase complex has been shown in various organisms, including C. elegans, to target the replication-licensing factor CDT1, and the CDK inhibitor p21. However, no previous link to EGFR signalling has been identified.
We have characterised CDT-2's role during vulva development and found that it is a novel attenuator of LET-23 signalling. CDT-2 acts redundantly with negative modulators of LET-23 signalling and CDT-2 or CUL-4 downregulation causes persistent expression of the egl-17::cfp transgene, a marker of LET-23 signalling during vulva development. In addition, we show that CDT-2 physically interacts with SEM-5 (GRB2), a known negative modulator of LET-23 signalling that directly binds LET-23, and provide genetic evidence consistent with CDT-2 functioning at or downstream of LET-23. Interestingly, both SEM-5 and CDT-2 were identified independently in a screen for genes involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis in oocytes, suggesting that attenuation of LET-23 by CDT-2 might be through regulation of endocytosis.
In this study, we have shown that CDT-2 and CUL-4, members of the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex attenuate LET-23 signalling in vulval precursor cells. In future, it will be interesting to investigate the potential link to endocytosis and to determine whether other signalling pathways dependent on endocytosis, e.g. LIN-12 (Notch) could be regulated by this ubiquitin ligase complex. This work has uncovered a novel function for the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ligase that may be relevant for its mammalian oncogenic activity.
C. elegans vulva development has been instrumental in the characterisation of numerous major signalling pathways such as EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor), and Notch [1, 2]. Even though most of the components of these core signalling pathways have been identified, the modulatory mechanisms remain difficult to decipher because of the intricate network formed by negative and positive feedback loops. In an attempt to identify novel players in attenuation of LET-23 (EGFR) signalling, we used a candidate-based approach to screen, by RNAi, for genetic interactors of gap-1 (see materials and methods). Deletion of gap-1 creates a hypersensitive background for the LET-23(EGFR)/LET-60(RAS)/LIN-45(RAF) signalling cascade, in which the loss of an additional attenuator can cause the Multivulvae (Muv) phenotype [2–4]. This strategy identified CDT-2, an evolutionary conserved homologue of human CDT2 also called DTL or DCAF2.
Human CDT2 was first discovered as a transcript down regulated following retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation in pluripotent NT2 cells , suggesting a role in maintenance of self-renewal capacity. CDT2, a WD40 domain containing protein, was later found associated to the CUL4/DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex [6–8]. Within this complex, CDT2 acts as a substrate recognition subunit. Two substrates have been well characterised: the license to replicate, CDT1, and the CDK inhibitor, p21 [7, 9–13]. Degradation of CDT1 and p21 are essential to prevent rereplication or firing of origin of replication following DNA damage-induced stress. Therefore, CDT2, as part of the CUL4/DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, plays a critical role in regulation of DNA replication.
Mouse CDT2 activity is essential for viability, which has precluded the study of its role during development . RNAi in C. elegans can sometime create knock down conditions that allow the identification of novel late onset activities. Here, we show that C. elegans CDT-2 and CUL-4 attenuate LET-23 signalling during vulva development. We found that SEM-5 (GRB2) physically interacts with CDT-2 and genetic studies are consistent with CDT-2 acting at the level of the LET-23 receptor. Finally, we confirmed that CDT-2 and SEM-5 are required for receptor-mediated endocytosis in oocytes . We propose a model by which the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 ubiquitin ligase complex associates with SEM-5 to target LET-23 and regulate its endocytosis.
Strains and general maintenance
Strains were maintained as described in Brenner, . lin-15AB(n765) is a temperature sensitive allele, which produces a lower penetrance Muv phenotype at 15°C than at 25°C. Strains genotypes are: gap-1(n1691), gap-1(ga133), lin-3(n378), let-23(sy1), let-60(n1046), lin-15A(n767), lin-15B(n744), dpy-23(e840), sem-5(n1779), sli-1(sy143), unc-101(sy108), cul-4(gk511)/mIn1[mIs14 dpy-10(e128)], unc-4(e120) II; arIs92[egl-17p::CFP::lacZ, unc-4 (+), ttx-3p::GFP], unc-119(ed3);pwIs23[vit-2::gfp] unc-119(+), pwIs116(rme- 2::GFP).
Briefly, worms for RNAi exposure were synchronised using standard bleaching to isolate embryos. These were grown to the L3 stage and then transferred to RNAi plates. The mothers were transferred onto a new plate after three days and the F1 s laid on this plate were analysed, as previously described . For lin-3 rf , let-23 rf , and lin-45 rf (and doubles with gap-1), F2 s were analysed instead of F1 s since the Vul phenotype leads to small broods. RNAi clones used in this study were all confirmed by sequencing.
Scoring of the Multivulvae (Muv) phenotype
Statistical analysis was performed mostly using the Mann-Whitney U-test with the calculated number of VPCs induced, except for the lin-3 rf analysis on which the Fisher's exact test was performed to analyse the proportionality of control worms with wild type vulva compared to cdt-2(RNAi) worms. In this particular case, it is likely that the Mann-Whitney test introduced a type II error (acceptance of the null hypothesis).
Briefly, L3 animals were mounted on agarose pads and examined for persistent expression of egl-17::cfp in secondary cells (light grey cells in Figure 1). These cells do not normally express egl-17::cfp at this stage (after second or third division) . Importantly, this assay must be performed prior to L4, since egl-17 expression disappears from the primary cells and appears in secondary cells at mid-L4 . For the analysis of the cul-4 mutants, heterozygous and homozygous animals were analysed in parallel, and were from the same mothers. Therefore the analysed animals were at roughly the same age in absolute time.
Briefly, the vit-2::gfp assay was performed as described , and RNAi perform as indicated above. Young adults were analysed and animals with gross gonadal defects were not analysed as they could bias the assay.
In vitropull down assay
Briefly, CDT-2 was produced using an in vitro transcription/translation reaction according to the manufacturer (Promega, Reticulocyte Lysate System, Non-Radioactive labelling). SEM-5 and SLI-1 were fused to GST and purified on column according to manufacturer. The pull down was performed as previously described . Equivalent amount of GST fusion proteins (~200 ng) were used per pull down, the size of the proteins visualised on gels stained by Coomassie, and protein concentrations measured by Bradford assay.
Microinjection for translational cdt-2::gfptransgenic
The cdt-2::gfp transgene (JA1501, weEx70[cdt-2p::cdt-2::gfp::let-858(3'UTR) + pha-1(+)] was generated by cloning DNA containing 3 kb upstream of the cdt-2 start codon and the entire cdt-2 coding region into plasmid pSB_GW::GFP containing GFP (as a C-terminal fusion) and the let-858 3'UTR. Transgenic animals were made by microinjection , selected by co-injecting pha-1(e2123) with the transgene and a plasmid containing the pha-1 gene . Functionality of the transgene was not tested.
cdt-2 genetically interacts with gap-1
We previously identified cdt-2 as having a potential role in vulva development because knockdown caused a weak synMuv (synthetic Multivulvae) phenotype . RNAi caused a low penetrance synMuv phenotype in a lin-15A background, but it did not pass the penetrance threshold and therefore was not further analysed at the time. It was subsequently shown that lin-15A could act redundantly with gap-1 to prevent erroneous adoption of vulval fate . GAP-1 is a GTPase Activating Protein that acts as an attenuator of LET-60 RAS signalling, and the gap-1 mutant has been shown to be a sensitized background for identifying attenuators . The interaction with lin-15A suggested that some of the weak candidate synMuv genes we previously identified might genetically interact with gap-1.
cdt-2 interacts with gap-1 to produce the Muv (Multiple vulvae) phenotype
CDT-2 prevents excessive LET-23 EGFR signalling during vulva development
The genetic interaction observed with gap-1 suggested that cdt-2 could be involved in attenuation of LET-23/LET-60/MPK-1 signalling. Therefore, we addressed whether depletion of cdt-2 could cause excessive LET-23/LET-60/MPK-1 signalling in a 'non-redundant' fashion as previously described for gap-1, other negative modulators of LET-60 (RAS) signalling [18, 25], and a subset of synMuv genes . To this end, we used egl-17::cfp (see materials and methods), a reporter for excessive LET-23/LET-60/MPK-1 signalling during vulva development . In wild-type animals, egl-17::cfp is only expressed in primary cells at the third larval stage (Figure 1A, black circles, and 1B and C). However, under conditions of excess LET-23/LET-60/MPK-1 signalling, egl-17::cfp expression persists in secondary cells (Figure 1A, grey circles). We found that depletion of cdt-2 by RNAi causes persistent expression of egl-17::cfp in P5.p and P7.p descendant cells of 50% of the animals analysed (Figure 1D and 1E). Taken together, the genetic interaction with gap-1 and the persistent expression of egl-17::cfp, strongly suggest that CDT-2 is an attenuator of LET-23/LET-60/MPK-1 signalling during vulva development.
CUL-4 prevents excessive LET-23 EGFR signalling during vulva development
Mammalian CDT2 has been found associated with the CUL4/DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex [6–8], which prompted us to test whether the C. elegans homologues of the complex would possess an activity similar to CDT-2. RNAi of cul-4, ddb-1, or rbx-1 (also found in this complex [27, 28]) did not produce a Muv phenotype in the gap-1 background (data not shown), but the rereplication phenotype [13, 29] could be detected in these experiments (data not shown). Because RNAi knockdown animals might retain residual activity, we also investigated the phenotype of a cul-4 deletion mutant.
Deletion of cul-4 causes persistent expression of egl-17::cfp
% Persistent exp.
% Persistent exp.
CDT-2 is expressed in dividing vulval precursor cells
CDT-2 is active at the level of the LET-23 receptor and physically interacts with SEM-5
Epistasis between cdt-2 and components of the EGF signalling cascade
Epistasis between cdt-2 and negative modulators of EGF signalling
Depletion of CDT-2 or SEM-5 causes similar receptor-mediated endocytosis defect
Because correct cortical localization of the RME-2 yolk receptor is required for endocytosis , we next examined receptor localization in cdt-2 RNAi animals to test whether the accumulation of vit-2::gfp might be caused indirectly by improper localization of the receptor. We found that the expression and localization of an rme-2::gfp reporter is normal in cdt-2(RNAi) animals (Figure 5D and 5E). The correct localization of RME-2::GFP combined with the defect in uptake of VIT-2::GFP suggests that CDT-2 plays a role (direct or indirect) in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis.
CDT2 is a recognition subunit of the CUL4/DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex important for DNA replication and G2/M checkpoint [9, 10, 27, 28]. Previous work has shown that these functions are conserved in C. elegans [11–13, 29]. We have uncovered a novel role for CUL-4 and CDT-2 in preventing excess LET-23 signalling. Because CDT-2 and CUL-4 normally work as part of the CDT-2/CUL-4/DDB-1 ubiquitin ligase complex, it seems likely that DDB-1 also participates in attenuation of LET-23 signalling. However, RNAi of ddb-1 did not cause obvious LET-23 signalling defects. This might be due to incomplete knockdown, or alternatively, CDT-2 and CUL-4 could act independently of DDB-1 in this context. We also provided in vitro evidence that CDT-2 can associate with SEM-5 directly. CDT-2 and SEM-5 share two functions: they attenuate LET-23 signalling during vulva development and are required for receptor-mediated endocytosis during oogenesis. Linking these two functions together, we hypothesise that the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase might interact with SEM-5 to affect LET-23 endocytosis and attenuation of the LET-23 signalling cascade. However, our studies do not rule out an effect through other signalling pathways involved in vulva development such as Wnt or Notch (see below).
The rereplication defect and LET-23 signalling
The rereplication defect caused by depletion of CDT-2 or CUL-4 has been previously characterised as well as the cell cycle arrest phenotype [11, 13, 29]. However, it is difficult to explain that these defects could cause excessive LET-23 signalling during vulva development. Indeed, experiments using hydroxyurea to arrest the VPC cell cycle have shown that egl-17 expression remains restricted to P6.p . Therefore, a replication block after first division as in the case of cul-4 deletion mutants is unlikely to cause persistent expression of egl-17::cfp. Furthermore, we observed increased LET-23 signalling in cdt-2 RNAi animals, and an increase in vulval fate adoption in gap-1; cdt-2(RNAi) animals, under conditions where the cell cycle proceeds normally. Therefore, the role of CDT-2 in preventing rereplication is likely to be independent of its function in preventing excess LET-23 signalling.
CDT-2 may attenuate LET-23 signalling as a component of the CUL-4/DDB-1 E3 ligase complex
RNAi by feeding in C. elegans has significant false negative rate, but false positives are rare . Hence, the finding that a deletion of cul-4 can cause the same vulval phenotype (egl-17::cfp assay, Table 2) as cdt-2(RNAi) suggests that both CUL-4 and CDT-2 are novel attenuators of LET-23 signalling. Since purification of the human CUL-4/DDB-1 E3 ligase complex by different groups has identified CDT-2 as the substrate recognition unit, it is likely that CUL-4 and CDT-2 function together in the process of LET-23 attenuation. Even though, this study cannot rule out that CUL-4 could act in parallel to attenuate LET-23 signalling.
SEM-5 and attenuation of signalling
SEM-5, the GRB2 homologue, has two activities linked to Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) signalling. It can act as a positive regulator of signalling by recruiting SOS-1 [2, 33, 34], or act as a negative modulator by recruiting SLI-1, the CBL homologue [4, 32]. SLI-1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that can associate with SEM-5 to target RTKs and promote lysosomal degradation . Here we show that CDT-2 can physically interact with SEM-5 and genetic analyses are consistent with action at the level of the LET-23 receptor. This suggests that SEM-5 might regulate attenuation of LET-23 signalling through ubiquitination and subsequent endocytosis using two different ubiquitin ligases: SLI-1 (CBL) and CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2. Unfortunately, we have been as yet unable to directly assess LET-23 receptor localisation or endocytosis during vulva development; immunostaining experiments are inconsistent and current let-23::gfp transgenics are not fully functional. Tests of these models will require better reagents to investigate regulation of the LET-23 receptor.
Ubiquitination and regulation of Notch signalling
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is important to terminate or attenuate signalling , not only for EGFR but also for other signalling pathways, e.g. Notch. During vulva development, LIN-12 (Notch) signalling is required for establishment of the secondary cell fate  and for the production of the anchor cell, which produces LIN-3 (EGF) . Interestingly, SEL-10, an F-box and a WD40 containing protein that belongs to the CDC4/CUL-1 family of ubiquitin ligase , has been shown to play an important role in attenuation of LIN-12 signalling . SEL-10 was also shown to physically interact with LIN-12, implying that it regulates signalling via ubiquitination of LIN-12. Herein we have not investigated the relationship between the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 ubiquitin ligase complex and LIN-12 signalling. We did not observe any defects in anchor cell development (unpublished data), a process dependent on LIN-12, however, it has been previously shown for SEL-10 that a sensitised background is required to reveal its activity as an attenuator of LIN-12 signalling . Therefore, we may not have detected a potential role for CDT-2 in attenuation of LIN-12 signalling.
There is also an intimate link between LIN-12 and LET-23 signalling during vulva development . Indeed, high level of LET-23 signalling triggers expression of LIN-12 ligands in the primary P6.p cell . This activates LIN-12 signalling in the flanking secondary cells and ensures down regulation of LET-23 signalling in P5.p and P7.p cells [18, 25, 46]. It is not impossible that the depletion of CDT-2 or CUL-4 impairs LIN-12 signalling and thereby prevents appropriate down regulation of LET-23 signalling in secondary cells, which would cause persistent expression of egl-17::cfp in secondary cells.
Localisation of CDT-2
The localisation of CDT-2 fused to GFP is predominantly nuclear in interphase and cytoplasmic during mitosis, which seems contrary with a function in endocytosis. However, we cannot exclude that a proportion of CDT-2::GFP below our limit of detection is cytoplasmic during interphase. Interestingly, early studies showed that human CDT-2 can be detected in the cytoplasm , which would be consistent with a role in ubiquitination of cytoplasmic targets. Alternatively, the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex may be active in the cytoplasm only after nuclear breakdown. Further experiments will be required to establish when and whether the complex is active in the cytoplasm, in particular during mitosis.
We have identified CDT-2 and CUL-4 as novel attenuators of LET-23 signalling during vulva development. Both of these proteins are known components of a conserved CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, suggesting a novel function for this complex in signalling during C. elegans development. A similar function in other organisms might have been missed because of its requirement for cell cycle progression. Studying this complex in mammalian cells using knock down conditions that bypass the cell cycle defect might reveal a conserved role in signalling.
Special thanks to Zita Balklava and Barth Grant for providing strains and insights into endocytosis in oocytes, to Fiona Gee for critical reading of the manuscript and micrographs of figure 2, and to Kate Fisher for the cul-4;egl-17::cfp cross. Some nematode strains used in this work were provided by the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center, which is funded by the NIH National Center for Research Resources (NCRR). G.P. was supported by the Wellcome Trust and a UK Medical Research Council Career Development Award G0600127. J.A. was supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship.
- Greenwald I: LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans. WormBook. 2005, 1-16.Google Scholar
- Sundaram MV: RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling. WormBook. 2006, 1-19.Google Scholar
- Hajnal A, Whitfield CW, Kim SK: Inhibition of Caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction by gap-1 and by let-23 receptor tyrosine kinase. Genes Dev. 1997, 11: 2715-28. 10.1101/gad.11.20.2715.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoon CH, Chang C, Hopper NA, Lesa GM, Sternberg PW: Requirements of multiple domains of SLI-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of c-Cbl, and an inhibitory tyrosine in LET-23 in regulating vulval differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2000, 11: 4019-31.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheung WM, Chu AH, Chu PW, Ip NY: Cloning and expression of a novel nuclear matrix-associated protein that is regulated during the retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 17083-91. 10.1074/jbc.M010802200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Angers S, Li T, Yi X, MacCoss MJ, Moon RT, Zheng N: Molecular architecture and assembly of the DDB1-CUL4A ubiquitin ligase machinery. Nature. 2006, 443: 590-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Higa LA, Banks D, Wu M, Kobayashi R, Sun H, Zhang H: L2DTL/CDT2 interacts with the CUL4/DDB1 complex and PCNA and regulates CDT1 proteolysis in response to DNA damage. Cell Cycle. 2006, 5: 1675-80. 10.4161/cc.5.15.3149.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jin J, Arias EE, Chen J, Harper JW, Walter JC: A family of diverse Cul4-Ddb1-interacting proteins includes Cdt2, which is required for S phase destruction of the replication factor Cdt1. Mol Cell. 2006, 23: 709-21. 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.08.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ralph E, Boye E, Kearsey SE: DNA damage induces Cdt1 proteolysis in fission yeast through a pathway dependent on Cdt2 and Ddb1. EMBO Rep. 2006, 7: 1134-9. 10.1038/sj.embor.7400827.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sansam CL, Shepard JL, Lai K, Ianari A, Danielian PS, Amsterdam A, Hopkins N, Lees JA: DTL/CDT2 is essential for both CDT1 regulation and the early G2/M checkpoint. Genes Dev. 2006, 20: 3117-29. 10.1101/gad.1482106.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim J, Feng H, Kipreos ET: C. elegans CUL-4 prevents rereplication by promoting the nuclear export of CDC-6 via a CKI-1-dependent pathway. Curr Biol. 2007, 17: 966-72. 10.1016/j.cub.2007.04.055.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim Y, Kipreos ET: Cdt1 degradation to prevent DNA re-replication: conserved and non-conserved pathways. Cell Div. 2007, 2: 18-10.1186/1747-1028-2-18.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim Y, Starostina NG, Kipreos ET: The CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase targets the degradation of p21Cip1 to control replication licensing. Genes Dev. 2008, 22: 2507-19. 10.1101/gad.1703708.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu CL, Yu IS, Pan HW, Lin SW, Hsu HC: L2dtl is essential for cell survival and nuclear division in early mouse embryonic development. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 1109-18. 10.1074/jbc.M606535200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Balklava Z, Pant S, Fares H, Grant BD: Genome-wide analysis identifies a general requirement for polarity proteins in endocytic traffic. Nat Cell Biol. 2007, 9: 1066-73. 10.1038/ncb1627.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brenner S: The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 1974, 77: 71-94.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poulin G, Dong Y, Fraser AG, Hopper NA, Ahringer J: Chromatin regulation and sumoylation in the inhibition of Ras-induced vulval development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Embo J. 2005, 24: 2613-23. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7600726.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoo AS, Bais C, Greenwald I: Crosstalk between the EGFR and LIN-12/Notch pathways in C. elegans vulval development. Science. 2004, 303: 663-6. 10.1126/science.1091639.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Inoue T, Sherwood DR, Aspock G, Butler JA, Gupta BP, Kirouac M, Wang M, Lee PY, Kramer JM, Hope I, et al: Gene expression markers for Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cells. Mech Dev. 2002, 119 (Suppl 1): S203-9. 10.1016/S0925-4773(03)00117-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grant B, Hirsh D: Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte. Mol Biol Cell. 1999, 10: 4311-26.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poulin G, Lebel M, Chamberland M, Paradis FW, Drouin J: Specific protein-protein interaction between basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and homeoproteins of the Pitx family. Mol Cell Biol. 2000, 20: 4826-37. 10.1128/MCB.20.13.4826-4837.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mello CC, Kramer JM, Stinchcomb D, Ambros V: Efficient gene transfer in C. elegans: extrachromosomal maintenance and integration of transforming sequences. Embo J. 1991, 10: 3959-70.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Granato M, Schnabel H, Schnabel R: pha-1, a selectable marker for gene transfer in C. elegans. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994, 22: 1762-3. 10.1093/nar/22.9.1762.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ceol CJ, Stegmeier F, Harrison MM, Horvitz HR: Identification and classification of genes that act antagonistically to let-60 Ras signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development. Genetics. 2006, 173: 709-26. 10.1534/genetics.106.056465.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berset T, Hoier EF, Battu G, Canevascini S, Hajnal A: Notch inhibition of RAS signaling through MAP kinase phosphatase LIP-1 during C. elegans vulval development. Science. 2001, 291: 1055-8. 10.1126/science.1055642.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fisher K, Southall SM, Wilson JR, Poulin GB: Methylation and demethylation activities of a C. elegans MLL-like complex attenuate RAS signalling. Dev Biol. 341: 142-53. 10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.02.023.Google Scholar
- Higa LA, Mihaylov IS, Banks DP, Zheng J, Zhang H: Radiation-mediated proteolysis of CDT1 by CUL4-ROC1 and CSN complexes constitutes a new checkpoint. Nat Cell Biol. 2003, 5: 1008-15. 10.1038/ncb1061.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu J, McCall CM, Ohta T, Xiong Y: Targeted ubiquitination of CDT1 by the DDB1-CUL4A-ROC1 ligase in response to DNA damage. Nat Cell Biol. 2004, 6: 1003-9. 10.1038/ncb1172.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhong W, Feng H, Santiago FE, Kipreos ET: CUL-4 ubiquitin ligase maintains genome stability by restraining DNA-replication licensing. Nature. 2003, 423: 885-9. 10.1038/nature01747.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cui M, Chen J, Myers TR, Hwang BJ, Sternberg PW, Greenwald I, Han M: SynMuv genes redundantly inhibit lin-3/EGF expression to prevent inappropriate vulval induction in C. elegans. Dev Cell. 2006, 10: 667-72. 10.1016/j.devcel.2006.04.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Jongeward GD, Sternberg PW: unc-101, a gene required for many aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans development and behavior, encodes a clathrin-associated protein. Genes Dev. 1994, 8: 60-73. 10.1101/gad.8.1.60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt MH, Dikic I: The Cbl interactome and its functions. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005, 6: 907-18. 10.1038/nrm1762.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang C, Hopper NA, Sternberg PW: Caenorhabditis elegans SOS-1 is necessary for multiple RAS-mediated developmental signals. Embo J. 2000, 19: 3283-94. 10.1093/emboj/19.13.3283.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clark SG, Stern MJ, Horvitz HR: C. elegans cell-signalling gene sem-5 encodes a protein with SH2 and SH3 domains. Nature. 1992, 356: 340-4. 10.1038/356340a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Korenjak M, Taylor-Harding B, Binne UK, Satterlee JS, Stevaux O, Aasland R, White-Cooper H, Dyson N, Brehm A: Native E2F/RBF complexes contain Myb-interacting proteins and repress transcription of developmentally controlled E2F target genes. Cell. 2004, 119: 181-93. 10.1016/j.cell.2004.09.034.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lewis PW, Beall EL, Fleischer TC, Georlette D, Link AJ, Botchan MR: Identification of a Drosophila Myb-E2F2/RBF transcriptional repressor complex. Genes Dev. 2004, 18: 2929-40. 10.1101/gad.1255204.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ambros V: Cell cycle-dependent sequencing of cell fate decisions in Caenorhabditis elegans vulva precursor cells. Development. 1999, 126: 1947-56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kamath RS, Fraser AG, Dong Y, Poulin G, Durbin R, Gotta M, Kanapin A, Bot Le N, Moreno S, Sohrmann M, et al: Systematic functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome using RNAi. Nature. 2003, 421: 231-7. 10.1038/nature01278.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haglund K, Sigismund S, Polo S, Szymkiewicz I, Di Fiore PP, Dikic I: Multiple monoubiquitination of RTKs is sufficient for their endocytosis and degradation. Nat Cell Biol. 2003, 5: 461-6. 10.1038/ncb983.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sorkin A, von Zastrow M: Endocytosis and signalling: intertwining molecular networks. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009, 10: 609-22. 10.1038/nrm2748.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greenwald IS, Sternberg PW, Horvitz HR: The lin-12 locus specifies cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell. 1983, 34: 435-44. 10.1016/0092-8674(83)90377-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seydoux G, Greenwald I: Cell autonomy of lin-12 function in a cell fate decision in C. elegans. Cell. 1989, 57: 1237-45. 10.1016/0092-8674(89)90060-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hubbard EJ, Wu G, Kitajewski J, Greenwald I: sel-10, a negative regulator of lin-12 activity in Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes a member of the CDC4 family of proteins. Genes Dev. 1997, 11: 3182-93. 10.1101/gad.11.23.3182.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sundaram M, Greenwald I: Genetic and phenotypic studies of hypomorphic lin-12 mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 1993, 135: 755-63.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen N, Greenwald I: The lateral signal for LIN-12/Notch in C. elegans vulval development comprises redundant secreted and transmembrane DSL proteins. Dev Cell. 2004, 6: 183-92. 10.1016/S1534-5807(04)00021-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berset TA, Hoier EF, Hajnal A: The C. elegans homolog of the mammalian tumor suppressor Dep-1/Scc1 inhibits EGFR signaling to regulate binary cell fate decisions. Genes Dev. 2005, 19: 1328-40. 10.1101/gad.333505.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sternberg PW: Vulval development. WormBook. 2005, 1-28.Google Scholar
- Sulston JE, Horvitz HR: Post-embryonic cell lineages of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev Biol. 1977, 56: 110-56. 10.1016/0012-1606(77)90158-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.