- Methodology article
- Open Access
Optogenetic in vivocell manipulation in KillerRed-expressing zebrafish transgenics
© Teh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 29 March 2010
- Accepted: 2 November 2010
- Published: 2 November 2010
KillerRed (KR) is a novel photosensitizer that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in KR-expressing cells upon intense green or white light illumination in vitro, resulting in damage to their plasma membrane and cell death.
We report an in vivo modification of this technique using a fluorescent microscope and membrane-tagged KR (mem-KR)-expressing transgenic zebrafish. We generated several stable zebrafish Tol2 transposon-mediated enhancer-trap (ET) transgenic lines expressing mem-KR (SqKR series), and mapped the transposon insertion sites. As mem-KR accumulates on the cell membrane and/or Golgi, it highlights cell bodies and extensions, and reveals details of cellular morphology. The photodynamic property of KR made it possible to damage cells expressing this protein in a dose-dependent manner. As a proof-of-principle, two zebrafish transgenic lines were used to affect cell viability and function: SqKR2 expresses mem-KR in the hindbrain rhombomeres 3 and 5, and elsewhere; SqKR15 expresses mem-KR in the heart and elsewhere. Photobleaching of KR by intense light in the heart of SqKR15 embryos at lower levels caused a reduction in pumping efficiency of the heart and pericardial edema and at higher levels - in cell death in the hindbrain of SqKR2 and in the heart of SqKR15 embryos.
An intense illumination of tissues expressing mem-KR affects cell viability and function in living zebrafish embryos. Hence, the zebrafish transgenics expressing mem-KR in a tissue-specific manner are useful tools for studying the biological effects of ROS.
- Reactive Oxygen Species
- Green Fluorescent Protein
- Zebrafish Embryo
- Transgenic Zebrafish
- Green Fluorescent Protein Reporter
The introduction of efficient transgenesis into the field of developmental biology opened the possibility to eradicate cells through the incorporation of tissue-specific and inducible toxic proteins [1–4], with cell death as an experimental endpoint. In addition, the ability to dose-dependently modulate the level of induced damage may be even more useful when investigating the long-term effects of experimental insult and/or recovery of affected cells. Fluorescent proteins not only faithfully report the presence of tagged proteins but, upon illumination, they also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The level of ROS generated can be modulated by a dose of illumination and evaluated by photobleaching of fluorescent proteins . Different levels of ROS cause different effects: at low levels, ROS can promote cell division or differentiation; at intermediate levels - growth arrest; and at high levels - apoptosis. Hence, an intense illumination of fluorescent transgenic animals may, in principle, generate enough ROS to overcome the ability of cells to detoxify the reactive intermediates and thereby induce a state of oxidative stress. Overt production of ROS also damages the membrane and induces single strand breaks in the DNA. Probable biological outcomes, in increasing dose-dependent manner, are functional impairment, genetic instability resulting in somatic mutations or cell death [6–9].
Currently, reliable research tools to study the effects of ROS in vivo, that would enable both dose-dependent control and tissue specificity of ROS production, are not available. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is mildly phototoxic under aerobic conditions, but since most vertebrates tolerate GFP phototoxicity, these toxic effects are low enough to be ignored [4, 5]. In comparison, KillerRed (KR) is a much more potent photosensitizer, highly toxic, and efficiently produces ROS upon illumination [10, 11]. Using purified KR and chemical probes to detect superoxide and singlet oxygen, it was shown that both types of ROS were produced upon green light irradiation of KR-expressing cells in vitro [12–15].
The semitransparent embryos of small teleosts, including zebrafish, are ideal for laser-mediated cell-ablation experiments . We decided to explore the possibility of manipulating cells in dose-dependent manner in living, KR-expressing zebrafish embryos using widely available microscopes. Several stable transgenic lines, with tissue-specific expression of membrane-tethered KR (mem-KR), were made using the efficient Tol2 transposon-mediated enhancer trap transgenesis [17–19]. The KR-specific phototoxic effect in the CNS and heart of living vertebrates that we observed demonstrates for the first time the possibility to manipulate the viability and/or function of KR-expressing cells, and illustrates the utility of KR-expressing zebrafish transgenics as living tools to study the effects of ROS in vivo.
The Tol2-KR screen
Transposon integration sites in transgenic lines depicted in Fig. 1.
Integration locus or nearest gene
22,076 bp downstream of cirbp
151354 bp of CT027703.23
13,480 bp upstream of stk35lb
NAa 48 bp upstream of exon1 of pard6gbb
32,151 bp downstream of ENSDARG00000078279a NAb
Flanking genomic sequences of Tol2 transposon insertions.
Flanking sequence reads from 5' or 3' transposon ends
Insertion of a concatemer of Tol2 -containing plasmid
5: catggttt TACACAGCTGATGGCCCTTCCAGCTGCAACCCAGTACGGGGGAAACACCTATACACTCATTCACACACACACACACACACACAC
Photobleaching of mem-KR is associated with increased cytotoxicity
We next compared the extent of KR photobleaching and the degree of damage to embryos by measuring the level of damage in DNA using the TUNEL assay on both illuminated control (wild type) and SqKR2 embryos. During this developmental period, some apoptosis is normally taking place resulting in some staining in controls. Since ROS are known to diffuse across membranes , their effect may spread outside of areas of KR expression. An exposure of KR-positive embryos to intense green light caused substantial increase in the number of cells detected by TUNEL assay: 4 min of exposure to green light resulted in a two-fold increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells (Figure 2S) as compared to the control (Figure 2R). This demonstrated that in vivo photobleaching of KR causes cell death (Figure 2E-I; R-T). Since SqKR2 has both skin and rhombomere-specific expression, we next addressed the contribution of skin-specific mem-KR expression into cell death. Ten sets of 24 hpf embryos including SqKR2, SqKR15B (a line with basal skin expression obtained from SqKR15 outcross with wild type zebrafish) and wild type zebrafish embryos (used as negative control), were illuminated and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde within three hours after illumination. Whole mount zebrafish TUNEL staining followed by immunohistochemistry to detect KR expression using anti-KillerRed antibody were carried out to address a question, whether there is an increase in cell death at the site of KR expression (Figure 2; Additional file 1F-K and Additional file 2). Only TUNEL-positive cells in the hindbrain were counted. An increase in cell death was detected at the site of KR expression in illuminated SqKR2 embryos (Figure 2J and Additional file 2). In fact 60% of apoptotic cells were found within KR-positive rhombomeres 3 and 5. The rest are either adjacent to these sites or represent background apoptosis. On average, the number of TUNEL-positive cells is approximately two-fold higher in SqKR2 (48.6 ± 6.38) when compared to both controls [SqKR15B (18.0 ± 3.39); WT (16.2 ± 3.60); Figure 2K-M]. Paired t-test comparing illuminated SqKR2 with the controls (SqKR15B or WT) further showed that obtained mean values are significantly different (P < 0.05; P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0005 respectively). In addition, no significant difference in the number of TUNEL- positive cells was detected between both controls (P = 0.6908). Thus cells expressing mem-KR are much more prone to illumination-induced DNA damage detected by TUNEL.
KR-mediated heart damage
To document changes in heart contractility, we recorded heartbeat using LSM 5 LIVE scanning microscope with continuous image acquisition at 60 confocal images per second for 30 seconds. M-mode depicting vertical movement of the heart tube edges (y axis) over time (x-axis) was generated  immediately before and after illumination. The effect of illumination on pumping efficiency of the heart was compared across each group (Figure 6A-C; Additional files 4, 5, 6 and 7). In total 5 embryos in each group were analyzed.
Optogenetic cell ablation is a promising approach for photodynamic therapy [14, 27]. Since the mem-KR is less efficient in eliciting cell death than its histone-tethered version , it may be more applicable for experiments aiming to affect cell physiology through the negative influence of KR-induced ROS production, for example on the heart rhythm and contractility. In addition, mem-KR could be a useful tool to study the effect of ROS at sub-lethal levels linked to most forms of heart disease, including ischemia and sudden heart failure [23, 24].
Here, the embryos of ET mem-KR transgenics were used for optogenetic manipulation of cell viability and function in vivo via dose-dependent, ROS-induced photodamage through the use of a commonly available mercury lamp rather than more specialized equipment, such as a laser, etc. We noted that mem-KR is more efficient as photosensitizer after illumination with the mercury lamp comparing to that of the laser of confocal microscope. This is attributed to the overall low dose of laser illumination and the fact that the 543 nm HeNe laser line used here is not optimal for KR excitation as the excitation maxima of this photosensitizer is at 585 nm. Thus, the confocal microscopy with the 543 nm HeNe laser line could be used to document mem-KR expression and cellular morphology before and after a surge of ROS production that can be conveniently induced by the mercury lamp attached to the same microscope. In a parallel study we have found that some specialized populations of KR-expressing cells are rather sensitive to illumination (Go et al., unpublished). Thus one needs to study the dose-dependent effects of laser/mercury lamp illumination in respect of a cell type under the study as these may vary.
The scale of photodamage associated with KR-activated ROS depends on various experimental conditions, such as cell type, illumination, oxygenation, and the availability of antioxidants . The extent of KR bleaching after illumination could be a good indicator of KR-induced cytotoxicity. In our hands, 80% reduction of the mean fluorescence intensity of mem-KR, as quantified using Image J, consistently caused cytotoxicity (Figure 2, 5). Other factors affecting the degree of photodamage include tissue transparency, which decreases as development progresses, and the intensity of KR expression; the latter parameter depends on many factors, such as a distance of the insertion site from the enhancer , as well as the efficiency of the basic promoter used. The use of krt4 basic promoter often results in transgenics with relatively bright expression of fluorescent markers [17, 18, 21], which is probably due to the compatibility between this promoter with various enhancers and the high efficiency of their interactions . The use of krt4 basic promoter-based enhancer trap system thus enhanced the chance of intense transgene expression, which could be important for applications based on relatively weak photosensitizers, such as mem-KR. Finally, the dose of illumination must be optimized for each transgenic line/tissue to elicit the KR-mediated photodamage at the desired level.
In summary, the KR-expressing transgenic lines represent useful tools to study the effects of ROS-mediated injury in different living cell lineages, in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the decreased cardiac output and subsequent pericardial edema that was induced by KR-mediated ROS production in the heart generated a phenotype that closely mimics the pathological condition associated with heart failure in humans. There is accumulating evidence to support a role for ROS in the development and progression of heart failure. Hence, KR transgenics may find their application in re-constructing the multistage processes caused by oxidative stress-induced damage in development and disease.
Zebrafish care and maintenance
Wild type (AB), cardiac enhancer trap lines  and ET (krt4-mem-KR) zebrafish lines were maintained in the IMCB zebrafish facility according to the IACUC rules (the Biopolis IACUC application #050096) and established protocols . All experiments involving zebrafish embryos/larvae were carried out in accordance to IACUC rules. Embryos were staged as described  in hours post fertilization (hpf). Embryos older than 30 hpf were first treated with 1-phenyl-2-thiourea at 18 hpf to prevent formation of melanin.
Molecular cloning and the generation of ET(krt4-mem-KR) lines
The KillerRed reporter-based Tol2 transposon pBK-CMV enhancer trap vector is a modification of the original GFP reporter-based system . The GFP reporter flanked by BamH1 at the 5' end and Not1 at its 3' end was subsequently replaced by the KR reporter flanked by the same restriction enzymes. To make the mem-KR the membrane localization signal (MLS) of neuromodulin was linked to the N-terminus of KR. The MLS (N-terminal 20 amino acid residues of Gap43/neuromodulin) contains a signal for posttranslational palmitoylation of cysteines 3 and 4 that targets KR to cellular membranes [12, 31]. Putative founders of the KR-expressing ET lines were generated as stated  by co-injection of transposase mRNA and the KR reporter-based Tol2 transposon pBK-CMV enhancer trap (ET) construct into 1-4 cell stage zebrafish embryos. The microinjected embryos were grown to maturity when each putative founder was out-crossed with wild type zebrafish and KR-expressing embryos were raised to adulthood resulting in F1 of the KR ET line. Three KR-expressing ET lines, SqKR2, SqKR15 and SqKR15B are emphasized in this article. SqKR15B, a line with basal KR expression in the skin segregated after outcross of SqKR15.
Optical setup and embryo staining
For illumination and imaging of KR-positive transgenic zebrafish embryos, we employed an upright (Zeiss Axiovert200M) laser scanning microscope (LSM) Meta 510 (Carl Zeiss) equipped with a x40 numerical aperture (NA) 0.75 W Achroplan long working distance dipping objective, 100 W mercury lamp and two laser lines (30 mW Argon and 1 mW HeNe). Depending on tissue type and the age of the embryo, the x40 objective and continuous exposure to white (halogen 12 V/ 100 W lamp) or green light (4 - 10 min) from the 100 W mercury lamp and filter set 15 (BP 546/12 nm) were employed at maximal light intensity and objective aperture. Heartbeat recordings were acquired on an inverted LSM 5 LIVE laser scanning microscope, using the EC Plan-Neofluar 20×/0.5 Ph2 M27 objective at 28°C. Images were acquired at 60 frame/sec (512 by 512 pixels). Green light illumination was performed on the same microscope by 20 min exposure to light from the 100 W mercury lamp using filter set 15 (BP 546/12 nm), with the EC Plan-Neofluar 40×/0.75 M27 objective followed by the use of 20× objective to record 30 seconds of heartbeat after illumination.
The anti-KR antibody (Evrogen, Russia; Cat. No. AB961-AB962) and TUNEL kit TMR Red (Roche, USA; Cat. No. 12156792910) were used for two-color staining for KR expression and apoptotic cells, correspondingly.
Column statistics and paired t tests were conducted using GraphPad Prism software.
We thank Karen Ocorr for the heartbeat analysis software, personnel of the IMCB facilities for the maintenance of fish lines and DNA sequencing. This work was supported by the IMCB institutional grant from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) of Singapore to V.K., grant funding from Russian Foundation for Basic Research 08-04-01702-a and a Rosnauka grant 02.512.12.2053.
- Asakawa K, Kawakami K: Targeted gene expression by the Gal4-UAS system in zebrafish. Dev Growth Differ. 2008, 50 (6): 391-399. 10.1111/j.1440-169X.2008.01044.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palmiter RD, Behringer RR, Quaife CJ, Maxwell F, Maxwell IH, Brinster RL: Cell lineage ablation in transgenic mice by cell-specific expression of a toxin gene. Cell. 1987, 50 (3): 435-443. 10.1016/0092-8674(87)90497-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurita R, Sagara H, Aoki Y, Link BA, Arai K, Watanabe S: Suppression of lens growth by alphaA-crystallin promoter-driven expression of diphtheria toxin results in disruption of retinal cell organization in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2003, 255 (1): 113-127. 10.1016/S0012-1606(02)00079-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wan H, Korzh S, Li Z, Mudumana SP, Korzh V, Jiang YJ, Lin S, Gong Z: Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter. Exp Cell Res. 2006, 312 (9): 1526-1539. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.01.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Remington SJ: Fluorescent proteins: maturation, photochemistry and photophysics. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2006, 16 (6): 714-721. 10.1016/j.sbi.2006.10.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caldecott KW: Single-strand break repair and genetic disease. Nat Rev Genet. 2008, 9 (8): 619-631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Covarrubias L, Hernandez-Garcia D, Schnabel D, Salas-Vidal E, Castro-Obregon S: Function of reactive oxygen species during animal development: passive or active?. Dev Biol. 2008, 320 (1): 1-11. 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.04.041.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakaya H, Tonse N, Kanno M: Electrophysiological derangements induced by lipid peroxidation in cardiac tissue. Am J Physiol. 1987, 253 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 22): Hl089-H1097.Google Scholar
- Moor AC: Signaling pathways in cell death and survival after photodynamic therapy. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2000, 57 (1): 1-13. 10.1016/S1011-1344(00)00065-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carpentier P, Violot S, Blanchoin L, Bourgeois D: Structural basis for the phototoxicity of the fluorescent protein KillerRed. FEBS Letters. 2009, 583: 2839-2842. 10.1016/j.febslet.2009.07.041.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pletnev S, Gurskaya N, Pletneva N, Lukyanov K, Chudakov D, Martynov V, Popov V, Kovalchuk M, Wlodawer A, Dauter Z, Pletnev V: Structural basis for phototoxicity of the genetically encoded photosynthesizer Killer Red. J Biol Chem. 2009, 284 (46): 32028-39. 10.1074/jbc.M109.054973.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bulina ME, Lukyanov KA, Britanova OV, Onichtchouk D, Lukyanov S, Chudakov DM: Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) using the phototoxic fluorescent protein KillerRed. Nat Protoc. 2006, 1 (2): 947-953. 10.1038/nprot.2006.89.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waldeck W, Mueller G, Wiessler M, Brom M, Toth K, Braun K: Autofluorescent proteins as photosensitizer in eukaryontes. Int J Med Sci. 2009, 6 (6): 365-373.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Serebrovskaya EO, Edelweiss EF, Stremovskiy OA, Lukyanov KA, Chudakov DM, Deyev SM: Targeting cancer cells by using an antireceptor antibody-photosensitizer fusion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009, 106 (23): 9221-9225. 10.1073/pnas.0904140106.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bulina ME, Chudakov DM, Britanova OV, Yanushevich YG, Staroverov DB, Chepurnykh TV, Merzlyak EM, Shkrob MA, Lukyanov S, Lukyanov KA: A genetically encoded photosensitizer. Nat Biotechnol. 2006, 24 (1): 95-99. 10.1038/nbt1175.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gahtan E, Baier H: Of lasers, mutants, and see-through brains: functional neuroanatomy in zebrafish. J Neurobiol. 2004, 59 (1): 147-161. 10.1002/neu.20000.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parinov S, Kondrichin I, Korzh V, Emelyanov A: Tol2 transposon-mediated enhancer trap to identify developmentally regulated zebrafish genes in vivo. Dev Dyn. 2004, 231 (2): 449-459. 10.1002/dvdy.20157.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kondrychyn I, Garcia-Lecea M, Emelyanov A, Parinov S, Korzh V: Genome-wide analysis of Tol2 transposon reintegration in zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 2009, 10: 418-10.1186/1471-2164-10-418.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Balciunas D, Wangensteen KJ, Wilber A, Bell J, Geurts A, Sivasubbu S, Wang X, Hackett PB, Largaespada DA, McIvor RS, et al: Harnessing a high cargo-capacity transposon for genetic applications in vertebrates. PLoS Genet. 2006, 2 (11): e169-10.1371/journal.pgen.0020169.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM: The importance of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human diseases. Mol Aspects Med. 1985, 8 (2): 89-193. 10.1016/0098-2997(85)90001-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poon KL, Liebling M, Kondrychyn I, Garcia-Lecea M, Korzh V: Zebrafish cardiac enhancer trap lines: New tools for in vivo studies of cardiovascular development and disease. Dev Dyn. 2010, 239: 914-926. 10.1002/dvdy.22203.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fishman MC, Chien KR: Fashioning the vertebrate heart: earliest embryonic decisions. Development. 1997, 124 (11): 2099-2117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Byrne JA, Grieve DJ, Cave AC, Shah AM: Oxidative stress and heart failure. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2003, 96 (3): 214-221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madamanchi NR, Vendrov A, Runge MS: Oxidative stress and vascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005, 25 (1): 29-38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cotter G, Metra M, Milo-Cotter O, Dittrich HC, Gheorghiade M: Fluid overload in acute heart failure--re-distribution and other mechanisms beyond fluid accumulation. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008, 10 (2): 165-169. 10.1016/j.ejheart.2008.01.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fink M, Challol-Massot C, Chu A, Ruiz-Lozano P, Giles W, Bodmer R, Ocorr K: A new method for detection and quantification of heart-beat parameters in Drosophila, zebrafish and embryonic mouse heart. BioTechniques. 2009, 46: 101-113. 10.2144/000113078.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kessel D, Oleinick NL: Initiation of autophagy by photodynamic therapy. Methods Enzymol. 2009, 453: 1-16. full_text.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gehrig J, Reischl M, Kalmár E, Ferg M, Hadzhiev Y, Zaucker A, Song C, Schindler S, Liebel U, Müller F: Automated high-throughput mapping of promoter-enhancer interactions in zebrafish embryos. Nat Methods. 2009, 6 (12): 911-916. 10.1038/nmeth.1396.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Westerfield M: The Zebrafish Book. 2000, University of Oregon Press, EugeneGoogle Scholar
- Kimmel CB, Ballard WW, Kimmel SR, Ullmann B, Schilling TF: Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 1995, 203: 253-310.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Skene JH, Virag I: Posttranslational membrane attachment and dynamic fatty acylation of a neuronal growth cone protein, GAP-43. J Cell Biol. 1989, 108 (2): 613-24. 10.1083/jcb.108.2.613.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.