Late gestational lung hypoplasia in a mouse model of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
© Yu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004
Received: 07 October 2003
Accepted: 02 February 2004
Published: 02 February 2004
Normal post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis is important for mammalian embryonic development. Neonatal mice lacking functional dehydrocholesterol Δ7-reductase (Dhcr7), a model for the human disease of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, die within 24 hours of birth. Although they have a number of biochemical and structural abnormalities, one cause of death is from apparent respiratory failure due to developmental pulmonary abnormalities.
In this study, we characterized further the role of cholesterol deficiency in lung development of these mice. Significant growth retardation, beginning at E14.5~E16.5, was observed in Dhcr7-/- embryos. Normal lobation but smaller lungs with a significant decrease in lung-to-body weight ratio was noted in Dhcr7-/- embryos, compared to controls. Lung branching morphogenesis was comparable between Dhcr7-/- and controls at early stages, but delayed saccular development was visible in all Dhcr7-/- embryos from E17.5 onwards. Impaired pre-alveolar development of varying severity, inhibited cell proliferation, delayed differentiation of type I alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and delayed vascular development were all evident in knockout lungs. Differentiation of type II AECs was apparently normal as judged by surfactant protein (SP) mRNAs and SP-C immunostaining. A significant amount of cholesterol was detectable in knockout lungs, implicating some maternal transfer of cholesterol. No significant differences of the spatial-temporal localization of sonic hedgehog (Shh) or its downstream targets by immunohistochemistry were detected between knockout and wild-type lungs and Shh autoprocessing occurred normally in tissues from Dhcr7-/- embryos.
Our data indicated that cholesterol deficiency caused by Dhcr7 null was associated with a distinct lung saccular hypoplasia, characterized by failure to terminally differentiate alveolar sacs, a delayed differentiation of type I AECs and an immature vascular network at late gestational stages. The molecular mechanism of impaired lung development associated with sterol deficiency by Dhcr7 loss is still unknown, but these results do not support the involvement of dysregulated Shh-Patched-Gli pathway in causing this defect.
Cholesterol is a necessary membrane constituent of all mammalian, reptile and avian cells, as well as a few other organisms, but not all eukaryotic organisms. In the latter cases, such as plants and fungi, cholesterol-like sterols (phytosterols, ergosterol etc.) seem to substitute for cholesterol. The precise need for sterols in biological membranes still remains poorly defined, though its link with microdomains (variously termed rafts, caveoli etc.) may be part of the answer . Although the accumulation of cholesterol in atherosclerotic plaques has led to the concept that 'too much' cholesterol may be deleterious, too little cholesterol has now been proven pathophysiological for abnormal embryonic development. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS, MIM 270400), a relative common dysmorphology disorder, is caused by mutations in DHCR7 [2–5], which encodes for 7-dehydrocholesterol Δ7-reductase and catalyzes a final step of cholesterol biosynthesis. Recognition of other dysmorphology syndromes caused by defects in the post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, such as desmosterolosis, lathosterolosis, X-linked chondrodysplasia punctanta and CHILD syndrome [6–15], has strengthened this concept.
Genetic disruption of the Dhcr7 results in neonatal lethality . Neonatal mice homozygous for the Dhcr7 gene disruption are deficient in cholesterol and have increased accumulation of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC). Although no embryonic lethality was noted, these knockout pups exhibited a number of developmental abnormalities and died within 24 h after birth. A similar mouse SLOS model, generated by replacing exons 3, 4 and part of exon 5 of the murine Dhcr7 gene, with similar biochemical and structural defects and a 100 % neonatal lethality, has also been reported . Poor lung development or diffuse lung alveolar atelectasis with cyanotic and lethargic breathing are consistent between both Dhcr7 null models [16, 17], and therefore is the likely reason for the respiratory insufficiency and subsequent death of Dhcr7-/- pups. These Dhcr7 knockout mice are models for human SLOS, especially the more severely affected patients, since early postnatal lethality with respiratory failure has been reported in severe SLOS cases [4, 5]. Developmental lung abnormalities are also relatively common in SLOS patients, including pulmonary hypoplasia, abnormal pulmonary lobation and pulmonary arteries, anomalies of laryngeal and tracheal development .
Mammalian lung is unique in that it is fully developed, but does not function for gas exchange until at the moment of birth; the majority of structural development and maturation takes place in utero. Lung development is a complex process that involves branching morphogenesis of epithelium, interstitial development including vasculogenesis, cellular differentiation, biochemical maturation and physical growth. Four stages of mouse lung development have been described, based upon the histological appearances of lung; pseudoglandular, canalicular, terminal saccular and alveolar stages .
Impaired hedgehog function has been proposed as a mechanism underlying malformations found in SLOS. Hedgehog family members play diverse roles in embryonic development, and cholesterol is necessary for maturation of these morphogens [20–23]. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling cascade has been shown to play a central role in lung development [24–26]. Loss of Shh function resulted in severe lung defects associated with loss of branching morphogenesis, but preserved proximal-to-distal differentiation of lung epithelium . Overexpression of Shh in the distal lung epithelium resulted in the absence of functional alveoli and an increase in interstitial tissue caused by an increased proliferation of both epithelial and mesenchyme cells . Mice with Shh overexpression died less than 24 h after birth, probably owing to respiratory failure. It has been reported that inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by chemical inhibitors of Dhcr7 also led to a disturbance of the Shh signaling with abnormal embryogenesis [27, 28], and severe sterol deprivation can indeed inhibit the processing of transfected Shh in cultured mammalian cells .
In the present studies, we characterized lung development in Dhcr7-/- embryos from E10.5 to birth. Our results showed that cholesterol deficiency, caused by loss of Dhcr7 activity, did not alter lung branching morphogenesis (early gestational stages, E9.5 to E14.5). However, lung saccular development was impaired, with arrested or partially developed epithelial tubules and delayed vascular development. Differentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) appeared normal but differentiation of type I AECs was severely impaired. Therefore, cholesterol deficiency resulted in a distinct late gestational lung hypoplasia, characterized by impaired sacculation with delayed type I AECs differentiation and immature vascular development. However, this study does not support the concept that the perturbation of Shh-Patched-Gli pathway was involved in the pathogenesis of developmental lung hypoplasia in Dhcr7-/- embryos. Patterns of expression of Shh signaling cascade members were not altered, and processing of Shh appeared normal.
Body growth retardation at late gestation stage in Dhcr7-/-embryos
Dhcr7-/- mice were born in the expected Mendelian ratios from heterozygous parents, but all of these pups died within 24 h and most within 14 h of birth . At birth, they were clearly smaller than wild-type or heterozygous littermates. An experienced investigator can pick out knockout pups based on this along with presence of hypoxia and their lack of spontaneous movement. The breathing frequency in P0 Dhcr7-/- pups was markedly slower than control littermates (34 ± 7 breaths/min in Dhcr7-/-, n = 10 vs. 92 ± 16 breaths/min in controls, n = 32, p < 0.001) and the breathing was observed to be more irregular and shallow, with long periods of apnea.
Dhcr7-/-embryos at late stages displayed pulmonary hypoplasia with delayed saccular development
Whole body and lung weights of mouse embryos
Wet BW (mg)
142 ± 0.21
138 ± 11
1015.3 ± 12
825.7 ± 14 *
Wet LW (mg)
8.1 ± 0.21
8.0 ± 0.4
43.44 ± 8.96
33.96 ± 11.37 *
LW/BW ratio (%)
5.7 ± 0.54
5.81 ± 0.55
4.4 ± 0.6
3.84 ± 0.63 *
We examined the lungs for any gross morphological abnormalities. The overall organogenesis of lungs was preserved in Dhcr7-/- pups; four right lung lobes and a single left lobe flanking the heart were easily seen on external examination at birth (Fig. 2D). Examination for lobation at E13.5 also showed comparable gross anatomy (Fig. 2C) between wild-type and knockout embryos. Histological analyses of the cardiopulmonary structures at E20.5, taken just before birth to avoid artifacts from lack of lung inflation, also confirmed normal gross anatomic development (Fig. 2E and 2F). Additionally, no cardiac defects were identified and this was confirmed by more detailed histological analyses (data not shown). Thus, despite the obvious hypoxia frequently observed at birth of the knockout pups, major cardiac structural abnormalities were not observed to account for this phenotype.
Attenuated cell proliferation in late gestational Dhcr7-/-lungs
Sterol content of developing lungs in Dhcr7deficient mice
Cholesterol is absolutely required for steroid hormone synthesis by the adrenal glands. Adrenal insufficiency, as has been reported in some severe cases of SLOS patients, could be responsible for the lung hypoplasia and perinatal lethality . Steroids, but particularly corticosteroids, are necessary for lung maturation, especially the synthesis and secretion of surfactant components . We determined plasma corticosterone levels in P0 mice within 12 h of birth. Wild type P0 mice had corticosterone levels of 158 ± 50 ng/ml (n = 11), compared with 225 ± 50 ng/ml (n = 7, p < 0.01) in Dhcr7-/- P0 mice. Thus, the corticosterone levels in Dhcr7-/- mice were not decreased, but increased by ~40%. However, since these P0 mice were dying, perhaps this increase was sub-optimal given the stress. Nevertheless, an absolute lack of corticosterone was not present in these knockout pups.
Dhcr7-/-lungs showed abnormal differentiation of type I alveolar epithelial cells (AECs)
Delayed vascular development in Dhcr7-/-lungs
Is the pattern of sonic hedgehog expression or signaling altered in Dhcr7-/-embryos?
Shh protein processing in Dhcr7-/-embryos
The elucidation that SLOS is caused by a defect in an enzyme necessary for cholesterol biosynthesis has improved our understanding of embryonic development. This discovery has led to the identification of other disorders of embryonic development caused by mutations in genes encoding other enzymes in the post-squalene steps of cholesterol biosynthesis. Although these genetic studies now implicate the need for normal cholesterol synthesis, the mechanistic role(s) of cholesterol in normal embryonic development remains to be clarified.
In the present study, we report the characterization of lung development in Dhcr7-/- embryos. Although cardiac abnormalities are common in human SLOS , no structural abnormalities of the heart or the great vessels were observed in the Dhcr7-/- pups. Lung development in Dhcr7-/- embryos at the early stages, from lung bud formation to canalicular stage, was morphologically similar to controls. Instead, a distinct lung hypoplasia at the saccular stage, characterized by arrested or partially developed distal epithelial tubules, reduced terminal sac space, delayed type I AECs differentiation and delayed vascular development, was consistently observed at late gestational stages in Dhcr7-/- embryos. At late stages of normal fetal development, the mammalian alveolar epithelium undergoes an abrupt differentiation as a part of the preparation of the lungs for the postnatal demands of gas exchange . Both type II AECs, producing pulmonary surfactants, and type I AECs, lining the expanded alveoli, are important for alveolar maturation. In addition, the vascular development of alveoli is also essential for normal lung morphogenesis at late gestational stages . We show here that the differentiation of type I AECs but not type II AECs in Dhcr7-/- lungs was blocked or delayed, as indicated by fewer flattened type I cells and by reduced expression of markers of type I AECs, T1α and AQP5. Delayed vascular development was also involved in the delayed sacculation of Dhcr7-/- lungs. Additionally, the mesenchyme separating the AECs from the vascular beds remained thickened. In support of normal differentiation of type II AECs, no alteration in the gene expression patterns for surfactant proteins A, B, C or D was noted, nor was the pattern of distribution of SP-C altered in lungs from knockout embryos. Thus, impaired gas exchange, as opposed to poor inflation and alveolar tension, may be the cause of respiratory failure in these pups.
Loss of functional Dhcr7 led to a retardation of embryonic growth from E14.5~E16.5 onwards. By this stage, cholesterol levels were already lower and its immediate precursor, 7-DHC, elevated in the lungs (this study) as well as in the whole body [16, 17]. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) followed by postnatal failure to thrive is a universally observed phenotype in SLOS patients [2, 18]. We showed here that body length was significantly reduced at later stages of gestation in Dhcr7-/- animals, compared to controls. Whole body weights and fresh lung weights (as well as brain, heart and kidney, data not shown) at late gestational stages were also lower in Dhcr7-/- embryos. Interestingly, the lower lung/body ratios at E18.5 in Dhcr7-/- embryos compared to wild-type suggested a disproportionate inhibition of lung growth than other organs. Cell proliferation and division in Dhcr7-/- lungs were markedly arrested without apparent increase in cell apoptosis. Therefore, it appears that growth retardation caused by cholesterol deficiency was primarily because of an inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, rather than an increase in cell death.
Cholesterol is present in Dhcr7-/- embryos, as it is in Sc5d-/- (lathosterolosis) and Dhcr24-/-(desmosterolosis) embryos [15, 38]. Total sterols and cholesterol in Dhcr7-/- embryonic lungs (as well as in brain and liver, data not shown) were reduced and 7DHC/8DHC elevated, but a significant amount of cholesterol was detectable, comprising ~60% and ~30% of total tissue sterols at E13.5 and neonate, respectively. Fetal cholesterol can either be synthesized endogenously in fetal tissues or accrued from extra-embryonic tissues such as maternal serum, placenta, and yolk sac . Since these mice theoretically can not synthesize cholesterol, any accumulation of cholesterol must be derived from the maternal sources. Interestingly, Dhcr24 null mice are viable but contained almost no cholesterol in plasma and tissues at 3-months, whereas cholesterol content in Dhcr24 null embryo tissues accounts for ~60% at E11.5 and ~30% at E17.5, of total tissue sterols . These results, as well as this study, suggest that a considerable amount of maternal cholesterol can be transferred to the murine fetus. One explanation of why the Dhcr24-/- mice are developmentally normal but Dhcr7-/- mice are affected may be because desmosterol can functionally substitute for cholesterol, whereas the other cholesterol precursors can not.
Although a mechanistic understanding of why a deficiency in cholesterol biosynthesis leads to abnormal embryonic development is lacking, a frequently advanced explanation has been that Shh signaling, involved in early developmental patterning, may be disrupted. In the developing lung primordium, Shh is expressed initially at E9 and promotes branching morphogenesis, which is impaired in Shh knockout mice , suggesting that Shh, secreted by the epithelium, is critical for branching morphogenesis. In this study, the lack of evidence of abnormal lung branching morphogenesis in the early stages, but a consistent delayed maturation of the gas-exchange region of the lung in the saccular period of development of Dhcr7-/- embryos was observed, suggesting early Shh signaling was normal. Shh protein expression and autoprocessing at E11.5 was indistinguishable between wild-type and Dhcr7-/- embryos. Additionally, although these experiments were not quantitative, the abundance of Shh appeared unchanged between these genotypes. Thus, it is possible that the cholesterol levels (roughly 50% of normal levels) in Dhcr7-/- embryos were enough for completion of Shh autoprocessing or 7DHC accumulated in Dhcr7-/- embryonic tissues can also participate efficiently as a sterol adduct in the Shh processing reaction . In this study, we also examined the Shh signaling pathway by immunohistochemistry of known key components of this pathway, such as patched, smoothened and Gli proteins. Shh signaling leads to the activation of transcription and increased protein levels of these components [40–42]. If Shh signaling were defective in Dhcr7-/- embryos, these could have resulted in abnormalities of the staining patterns of these components, but no such disturbance was detected. Indeed, the patterns of protein expression seemed comparable and indistinguishable from wild-type embryos at all stages of lung development examined.
In a recent in vitro study , mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Dhcr7-/- embryos, grown in lipid-depleted culture and transiently treated with cyclodextrin, showed no affect on Shh processing. However, a deficiency in their ability to respond to Shh activation, as judged by reporter gene expression, was demonstrable. In contrast, when CHO cells, that stably expressed Shh, were subjected to sterol deprivation, an arrest of Shh autoprocessing was clearly demonstrable . In the present study, we did not detect unprocessed Shh in Dhcr7-/- embryonic tissues at E11.5. Subtle differences in Shh signal transduction can not be excluded by the present study. However, we favor a model whereby the loss of normal cholesterol biosynthesis is important, not so much for Shh autocleavage, as for the loss of the correct plasma membrane milieu. Since the loss of cholesterol content in the plasma membrane (and perhaps any membrane) is likely to alter the function of receptors more sensitive to this, loss of normal cholesterol synthesis may cause a loss of signal transduction of a host of such pathways. Thus, this effect may not be limited to the Shh pathway and other targets may be more important. This hypothesis is amenable to testing in the Dhcr7 null mice.
Cholesterol deficiency caused by Dhcr7 deficiency in mice resulted in, along with IUGR, a distinct lung saccular hypoplasia with impaired differentiation of type I but not type II AECs and delayed associated vascular development. Loss of the correct amounts of cholesterol in the membranes may perturb those receptors that depend upon cholesterol for efficient signal transduction. Further investigation of which transcriptional and signal transduction pathways are more significantly affected by the loss of Dhcr7 will be critical to elucidate the mechanism of lung hypoplasia of this model, as well as the role of cholesterol in embryonic development.
All mice were housed in an animal facility at 22°C with a 12 h light ~12 h dark cycle and all protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Welfare Committee. Dhcr7 heterozygous animals used in this study have been backcrossed onto a C57BL/6J background for 11 successive generations. The presence of vaginal plugs was considered as embryonic day (E) 0.5. Timed pregnant females were sacrificed, embryos dissected from the uteri and placed in 1X PBS. Crown-rump lengths of the embryos were measured by use of an electronic digital caliper and embryos weighed, after blotting off excess fluid. Each lung was removed intact from the thoracic cavity, blotted free of excess fluid, and weighed. Mice were classified as P0 when birth was witnessed and their breathing activities visualized under a dissecting microscope. Digital images of embryos or lungs were captured using a Zeiss-1000 dissecting microscope. Genotyping was performed by PCR, as described previously . And in selective cases, Southern blotting was performed for confirmation of Dhcr7 genotype.
Tissue sterol compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as described previously [2, 44]. Serum corticosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on the blood obtained from decapitated neonates by a commercial source (DRTC hormone Assay Core Lab, Vanderbilt University, TN).
Histology and Immunohistochemistry
Thoracic parts from embryos or P0 mice were fixed in either Amsterdam's fixative (methanol:acetone:acetic acid:water, 35:35:5:25 v/v) or 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS. Tissues were fixed overnight at room temperature (RT), rinsed in PBS, dehydrated in a graded ethanol series, cleared in toluene and embedded in paraffin. Five μ m sections were mounted on Superfrost-Plus slides (VWR, West Chester, PA) for histological or immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses.
IHC was performed using an indirect method. After deparaffination in xylene and rehydration through a graded series of ethanol, sections were heated at 95°C in 10 mM sodium citrate (pH 6.0) for an initial 15 min and for three successive 5-min periods . After cooling, the sections were treated with hydrogen peroxide (3% v/v in PBS, pH7.4) for 10 min and rinsed in the PBS. Sections were blocked with 5% normal serum for 2 h, washed in PBS and incubated with antibodies against Shh-N19 (1:100), Patched (1:100), Smo-N19 (1:100), Gli1 (1:100), Gli3-N19 (1:100), SP-C C19 (1:200), caveolin 1α-N20 (1:200), aquaporin 5 (AQP5, 1:200), megalin (1:200), PECAM-1 (1:200) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) or T1α (mAB 8.1.1, 1:1000 dilution, Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Iowa City, IA) overnight at 4° C in a humidified chamber. The sections were washed in PBS, incubated with biotinylated secondary antibodies (1:1000~1:5000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) in PBS for 2 h at RT, incubated with HRP-streptavidin complex for 30 min, rinsed in PBS and visualized using a Metal Enhanced Diaminobenzidine (DAB) Substrate Kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL). Digital images were collected using a Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera mounted on an Olympus BX40 microscope.
Terminal saccular space areas were measured using NIH Image software (NIH, Bethesda, MD) as previously described . Multiple measurements were performed on randomly selected 0.04-mm2 fields located in the distal part of the lung sections. The proportion of lung comprising terminal saccular spaces was calculated as a percentage of the total examined area of the lung section. Three animals per genotype were examined.
Assessment of cell proliferation/Division/death
Changes in cell proliferation and division were assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) IHC, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and phosphorylated histone H3 (pHH3) IHC. The PCNA (1:2000) and pHH3-Ser28 (1:200) antibodies were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. For BrdU incorporation, timed pregnant mice at E18.5 were injected intra-peritoneally with 100 μg/gm body weight of BrdU (Sigma, St Louis, MO) 2 h prior to sacrifice, embryos dissected from uteri and processed as described above. Sections were stained with a monoclonal anti-BrdU antibody (1:100, Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Iowa City, IA) and visualized with a Cy2-conjugated rabbit anti-mouse antibody using a laser-scanning confocal microscope. Cell death was investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) using the Fluorescein In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) according to the manufacturer's protocol.
Sample preparation and western blotting was performed according to Kawakami et al with some minor modifications . Briefly, 3 embryos from each genotype were pooled, homogenized in ice cold lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-pH8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100, 0.5 mM DTT, 1 mM PMSF and 2 μg/ml each of aprotinin, leupeptin and pepstatin A) with a tissue homogenizer (PRO Scientific Inc., Oxford, CT) using three pulses of 10 seconds each and then subjected to Dounce homogenizer by 10 strokes. The homogenates were centrifuged at 10,000 g for 30 minutes at 4°C, supernatants collected, protein concentration determined and used for western blotting. COS1 cells were transfected using Superfect transfection reagent (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) with expression constructs encoding either the full-length Shh or the N-terminal fragment of Shh without post-translational modifications (constructs kindly provided by Dr. Pao-Tien Chuang, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA), harvested 3 days after transfection and protein extracts prepared as described above. Protein concentration was determined using Bio-Rad protein assay kit (BioRad, Hercules, CA) and 20 μg (COS1 cells) and 75 μg (embryos) of lysates separated by 15 % SDS-PAGE, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane, incubated with primary antibody (Shh-N19, 1:100) for 2 hours, followed by donkey anti-goat HRP second antibody (1:1000) and visualized by chemiluminescent detection according to manufacturer's protocols (Perkin-Elmer Life Sciences, Boston MA).
Northern blotting was performed as previously described , using total RNA (20 μg) from P0 mice lungs. The cDNA probes for SP-A, SP-B and SP-C were kindly provided by Dr. Jeffery Whitsett (Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio). A cDNA probe for SP-D was amplified by RT-PCR, using murine SP-D cDNA specific primers (sense 5'-TGCCTGGTCGTGATGGACG-3', and antisense 5'-AGCACTGTCTGGAAGCCCGC-3') and confirmed by sequencing.
HY designed the experiments. HY, ALP and JLC performed experiments.
GST analyzed tissue sterols by GC-MS and JO performed lung morphometric analyses. HY, AW and SBP analyzed the data. HY and SBP prepared the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We are grateful to Jeffery Whitsett for providing cDNA probes for SP-A, SP-B and SP-C and Pao-Tien Chuang for the Shh and Shh-N plasmids. This research was supported by a Beginning Grant-in-Aid 0160349U from the American Heart Association, Mid-Atlantic Consortium (HY); NIH PO1 HL52813 and NIH PO1 HD39946 (AW) and NIH HL68660 (SBP).
- Simons K, Toomre D, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics Pfotenhauerstrasse D. Dresden Germany Simons Embl-Heidelberg de: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000, 1(1): 31-39. 10.1038/35036052.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tint GS, Irons M, Elias ER, Batta AK, Frieden R, Chen TS, Salen G: Defective cholesterol biosynthesis associated with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1994, 330: 107-113. 10.1056/NEJM199401133300205.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fitzky BU, Witsch-Baumgartner M, Erdel M, Lee JN, Paik YK, Glossmann H, Utermann G, Moebius FF: Mutations in the Delta7-sterol reductase gene in patients with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998, 95: 8181-8186. 10.1073/pnas.95.14.8181.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wassif CA, Maslen C, Kachilele-Linjewile S, Lin D, Linck LM, Connor WE, Steiner RD, Porter FD: Mutations in the human sterol delta7-reductase gene at 11q12-13 cause Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1998, 63: 55-62. 10.1086/301936.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waterham HR, Wijburg FA, Hennekam RC, Vreken P, Poll-The BT, Dorland L, Duran M, Jira PE, Smeitink JA, Wevers RA, Wanders RJ: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1998, 63: 329-338. 10.1086/301982.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clayton P, Mills K, Keeling J, FitzPatrick D: Desmosterolosis: a new inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis. Lancet. 1996, 348: 404-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brunetti-Pierri N, Corso G, Rossi M, Ferrari P, Balli F, Rivasi F, Annunziata I, Ballabio A, Russo AD, Andria G, Parenti G: Lathosterolosis, a novel multiple-malformation/mental retardation syndrome due to deficiency of 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta5-desaturase. Am J Hum Genet. 2002, 71: 952-958. 10.1086/342668.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Braverman N, Lin P, Moebius FF, Obie C, Moser A, Glossmann H, Wilcox WR, Rimoin DL, Smith M, Kratz L, Kelley RI, Valle D: Mutations in the gene encoding 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-delta 8, delta 7-isomerase cause X-linked dominant Conradi-Hunermann syndrome. Nat Genet. 1999, 22: 291-294. 10.1038/10357.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Derry JM, Gormally E, Means GD, Zhao W, Meindl A, Kelley RI, Boyd Y, Herman GE: Mutations in a delta 8-delta 7 sterol isomerase in the tattered mouse and X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata. email@example.com. Nat Genet. 1999, 22: 286-290. 10.1038/10350.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grange DK, Kratz LE, Braverman NE, Kelley RI: CHILD syndrome caused by deficiency of 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta8, delta7-isomerase. Am J Med Genet. 2000, 90: 328-335. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(20000214)90:4<328::AID-AJMG13>3.0.CO;2-F.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Herman GE: X-Linked dominant disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis in man and mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000, 1529: 357-373. 10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00160-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waterham HR, Koster J, Romeijn GJ, Hennekam RC, Vreken P, Andersson HC, FitzPatrick DR, Kelley RI, Wanders RJ: Mutations in the 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta24-reductase gene cause desmosterolosis, an autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis. Am J Hum Genet. 2001, 69: 685-694. 10.1086/323473.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Konig A, Happle R, Bornholdt D, Engel H, Grzeschik KH: Mutations in the NSDHL gene, encoding a 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cause CHILD syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 2000, 90: 339-346. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(20000214)90:4<339::AID-AJMG15>3.3.CO;2-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kelley RI, Wilcox WG, Smith M, Kratz LE, Moser A, Rimoin DS: Abnormal sterol metabolism in patients with Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome and sporadic lethal chondrodysplasia punctata. Am J Med Genet. 1999, 83: 213-219. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19990319)83:3<213::AID-AJMG15>3.0.CO;2-C.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krakowiak PA, Wassif CA, Kratz L, Cozma D, Kovarova M, Harris G, Grinberg A, Yang Y, Hunter AG, Tsokos M, Kelley RI, Porter FD: Lathosterolosis: an inborn error of human and murine cholesterol synthesis due to lathosterol 5-desaturase deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2003, 12: 1631-1641. 10.1093/hmg/ddg172.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fitzky BU, Moebius FF, Asaoka H, Waage-Baudet H, Xu L, Xu G, Maeda N, Kluckman K, Hiller S, Yu H, Batta AK, Shefer S, Chen T, Salen G, Sulik K, Simoni RD, Ness GC, Glossmann H, Patel SB, Tint GS: 7-Dehydrocholesterol-dependent proteolysis of HMG-CoA reductase suppresses sterol biosynthesis in a mouse model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz/RSH syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2001, 108: 905-915. 10.1172/JCI200112103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wassif CA, Zhu P, Kratz L, Krakowiak PA, Battaile KP, Weight FF, Grinberg A, Steiner RD, Nwokoro NA, Kelley RI, Stewart RR, Porter FD: Biochemical, phenotypic and neurophysiological characterization of a genetic mouse model of RSH/Smith--Lemli--Opitz syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2001, 10: 555-564. 10.1093/hmg/10.6.555.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kelley RI, Hennekam RC: The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. J Med Genet. 2000, 37: 321-335. 10.1136/jmg.37.5.321.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Warburton D, Schwarz M, Tefft D, Flores-Delgado G, Anderson KD, Cardoso WV: The molecular basis of lung morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2000, 92: 55-81. 10.1016/S0925-4773(99)00325-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cooper MK, Porter JA, Young KE, Beachy PA: Teratogen-mediated inhibition of target tissue response to Shh signaling. Science. 1998, 280: 1603-1607. 10.1126/science.280.5369.1603.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Incardona JP, Lee JH, Robertson CP, Enga K, Kapur RP, Roelink H: Receptor-mediated endocytosis of soluble and membrane-tethered Sonic hedgehog by Patched-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000, 97: 12044-12049. 10.1073/pnas.220251997.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lewis PM, Dunn MP, McMahon JA, Logan M, Martin JF, St-Jacques B, McMahon AP: Cholesterol modification of sonic hedgehog is required for long-range signaling activity and effective modulation of signaling by Ptc1. Cell. 2001, 105: 599-612. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00369-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Porter JA, Young KE, Beachy PA: Cholesterol modification of hedgehog signaling proteins in animal development. Science. 1996, 274: 255-259. 10.1126/science.274.5285.255.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pepicelli CV, Lewis PM, McMahon AP: Sonic hedgehog regulates branching morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Curr Biol. 1998, 8: 1083-1086.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miller LA, Wert SE, Whitsett JA: Immunolocalization of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in developing mouse lung. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001, 49: 1593-1604.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bellusci S, Furuta Y, Rush MG, Henderson R, Winnier G, Hogan BL: Involvement of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in mouse embryonic lung growth and morphogenesis. Development. 1997, 124: 53-63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gofflot F, Gaoua W, Bourguignon L, Roux C, Picard JJ: Expression of Sonic Hedgehog downstream genes is modified in rat embryos exposed in utero to a distal inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. Dev Dyn. 2001, 220: 99-111. 10.1002/1097-0177(2000)9999:9999<::AID-DVDY1092>3.0.CO;2-G.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gofflot F, Hars C, Illien F, Chevy F, Wolf C, Picard JJ, Roux C: Molecular mechanisms underlying limb anomalies associated with cholesterol deficiency during gestation: implications of Hedgehog signaling. Hum Mol Genet. 2003, 12: 1187-1198. 10.1093/hmg/ddg129.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guy RK: Inhibition of sonic hedgehog autoprocessing in cultured mammalian cells by sterol deprivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000, 97: 7307-7312. 10.1073/pnas.97.13.7307.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Andersson HC, Frentz J, Martinez JE, Tuck-Muller CM, Bellizaire J: Adrenal insufficiency in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1999, 82: 382-384. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19990219)82:5<382::AID-AJMG5>3.3.CO;2-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ballard PL, Ning Y, Polk D, Ikegami M, Jobe AH: Glucocorticoid regulation of surfactant components in immature lambs. Am J Physiol. 1997, 273: L1048-57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCarthy RA, Barth JL, Chintalapudi MR, Knaak C, Argraves WS: Megalin functions as an endocytic sonic hedgehog receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277: 25660-25667. 10.1074/jbc.M201933200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramirez MI, Pollack L, Millien G, Cao YX, Hinds A, Williams MC: The alpha-isoform of caveolin-1 is a marker of vasculogenesis in early lung development. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002, 50: 33-42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Porter JA, Ekker SC, Park WJ, von Kessler DP, Young KE, Chen CH, Ma Y, Woods AS, Cotter RJ, Koonin EV, Beachy PA: Hedgehog patterning activity: role of a lipophilic modification mediated by the carboxy-terminal autoprocessing domain. Cell. 1996, 86: 21-34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawakami T, Kawcak T, Li YJ, Zhang W, Hu Y, Chuang PT: Mouse dispatched mutants fail to distribute hedgehog proteins and are defective in hedgehog signaling. Development. 2002, 129: 5753-5765. 10.1242/dev.00178.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin AE, Ardinger HH, Ardinger R. H., Jr., Cunniff C, Kelley RI: Cardiovascular malformations in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1997, 68: 270-278. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19970131)68:3<270::AID-AJMG5>3.3.CO;2-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cardoso WV: Molecular regulation of lung development. Annu Rev Physiol. 2001, 63: 471-494. 10.1146/annurev.physiol.63.1.471.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler A, Brafman A, Shafir M, Heverin M, Gottlieb H, Damari G, Gozlan-Kelner S, Spivak I, Moshkin O, Fridman E, Becker Y, Skaliter R, Einat P, Faerman A, Bjorkhem I, Feinstein E: Generation of viable cholesterol-free mice. Science. 2003, 302: 2087-10.1126/science.1090776.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Woollett LA: Origin of cholesterol in the fetal golden Syrian hamster: contribution of de novo sterol synthesis and maternal-derived lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 1996, 37: 1246-1257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grindley JC, Bellusci S, Perkins D, Hogan BL: Evidence for the involvement of the Gli gene family in embryonic mouse lung development. Dev Biol. 1997, 188: 337-348. 10.1006/dbio.1997.8644.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Incardona JP, Gruenberg J, Roelink H: Sonic hedgehog induces the segregation of patched and smoothened in endosomes. Curr Biol. 2002, 12: 983-995. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00895-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Motoyama J, Liu J, Mo R, Ding Q, Post M, Hui CC: Essential function of Gli2 and Gli3 in the formation of lung, trachea and oesophagus. Nat Genet. 1998, 20: 54-57. 10.1038/1711.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cooper MK, Wassif CA, Krakowiak PA, Taipale J, Gong R, Kelley RI, Porter FD, Beachy PA: A defective response to Hedgehog signaling in disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis. Nat Genet. 2003, 33: 508-513. 10.1038/ng1134.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tint GS: Cholesterol defect in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1993, 47: 573-574.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao J, Chen H, Peschon JJ, Shi W, Zhang Y, Frank SJ, Warburton D: Pulmonary hypoplasia in mice lacking tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme indicates an indispensable role for cell surface protein shedding during embryonic lung branching morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2001, 232: 204-218. 10.1006/dbio.2001.0176.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu J, Zhu YH, Patel SB: Cyclosporin-induced dyslipoproteinemia is associated with selective activation of SREBP-2. Am J Physiol. 1999, 277: E1087-94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.