- Research article
- Open Access
The receptor for Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is expressed in radial glia during development of the nervous system
© Kirsch et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 01 August 2007
- Accepted: 27 March 2008
- Published: 27 March 2008
Granulocyte colony-stimulating (G-CSF) factor is a well-known hematopoietic growth factor stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors. Recently, we uncovered that G-CSF acts also as a neuronal growth factor in the brain, which promotes adult neural precursor differentiation and enhances regeneration of the brain after insults. In adults, the receptor for G-CSF is predominantly expressed in neurons in many brain areas. We also described expression in neurogenic regions of the adult brain, such as the subventricular zone and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus. In addition, we found close co-localization of the G-CSF receptor and its ligand G-CSF. Here we have conducted a systematic expression analysis of G-CSF receptor and its ligand in the developing embryo.
Outside the central nervous system (CNS) we found G-CSF receptor expression in blood vessels, muscles and their respective precursors and neurons. The expression of the G-CSF receptor in the developing CNS was most prominent in radial glia cells.
Our data imply that in addition to the function of G-CSF and its receptor in adult neurogenesis, this system also has a role in embryonic neurogenesis and nervous system development.
- Radial Glia
- Central Nervous System Development
- Adult Central Nervous System
- Radial Glial Cell
- Adult Neural Stem Cell
Granulocyte colony-stimulating (G-CSF) factor is a secreted glycoprotein of 20 kDa traditionally known as a hematopoietic growth factor stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors [1, 2]. It is clinically used for the treatment of chemotherapy-associated neutropenia and for the mobilization of stem cells for bone-marrow transplantations. In addition to this hematopoietic function, we recently described important functions in the central nervous system (CNS), including anti-apoptotic properties on mature neurons, as well as a neurogenic function in adult neural stem cells . G-CSF and its receptor are widely expressed in the adult CNS and induced upon cerebral ischemia. Besides reducing infarct volumes in stroke, G-CSF enhances long-term recovery after insults to the brain, which is linked to an increase in neurogenesis [3–5]. Taken together, these data underline the clinical relevance of G-CSF as a potential new drug for stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders (for review see ).
G-CSF and its receptor show a broad, mainly neuronal, colocalized expression throughout the murine brain . Beside the expression in pyramidal neurons in the cortex (mainly layers II/III and V), the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, the hippocampus (hilus and CA3 field), the entorhinal cortex and the olfactory bulb, G-CSF is also expressed in neurogenic regions in the adult brain: in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone. To see whether the expression in the nervous system of the adult organism had any correlation to embryonic expression of the receptor, we performed an expression pattern study of the G-CSF receptor during CNS development of the mouse embryo.
G-CSF receptor expression outside the CNS throughout development of the rat embryo
Identification of mRNA expression of the G-CSF receptor and G-CSF in the developing CNS
Immunohistochemical localization of the G-CSF receptor in the developing CNS
In addition, we found G-CSF receptor expression in structures of the peripheral nervous system such as the dorsal root ganglion and axon roots originating from the ventral spinal cord (Figure 3B; E12).
G-CSF receptor and Nestin co-localize in the E16 rat embryo
The embryonic expression pattern of the G-CSF receptor can be divided into three main categories. The first category with prominent G-CSF receptor expression consists of blood vessels (e.g. the cardiac ventricles, in the intestine, in the glomerular system of the kidney and in blood vessels in the CNS (Figure 1A–C, 1F, 1M–O). Expression in endothelial cells in the embryo is expected as the G-CSF receptor is expressed in adult blood vessels, and G-CSF has considerable effects on endothelial cell functions [9–11]. Expression in blood vessels in the brain likely forms the basis for blood-brain barrier penetration of G-CSF [3, 12], and for effects on G-CSF-induced vascular remodeling after stroke [13, 14] or myocardial infarction .
The second category with G-CSF receptor expression is formed by muscles and their progenitors (e.g. somites and ocular muscle, Figure 1D, K).
Neurons represent the third category, where high abundance of G-CSF receptor expression was observed in the rat embryo (e. g. in the tongue, the upper cervical dorsal root ganglia, Figure 1E, 1G–J). Broad neuronal expression of G-CSF receptor and its ligand have been detected in the adult CNS [3, 16]. Using RT-PCR, we detected embryonic expression of G-CSF receptor and G-CSF from E11 up to postnatal day 2 in the brain, respectively head of mice, consistent with the immunohistochemical detection. The embryonic expression pattern of the G-CSF receptor in the CNS is characterized by staining of elongated radial processes crossing through the developing neuroepithelium (Figure 3) and terminating in conical endfeet at the the pial surface (Figure 3A, G, I). We identified these cells as radial glia because of their unique morphology and co-expression of the intermediate filament protein Nestin (initially described as monoclonal antibody Rat-401) [17, 18]. Because of their long processes, radial glia cells were originally interpreted as a transient scaffold upon which nascent neurons should migrate to their definitive positions [19, 20]. In recent years, the view of radial glia cells as pure supportive cells has changed dramatically. They are now regarded as multifunctional cells involved in many aspects of brain and spinal cord development. One important feature of radial glia might be the involvement in CNS regionalization. In hindbrain development for example, it has been shown that rhombomere boundaries are formed by radial glia cells in order to limit neuronal migration . Most intriguing however, is the recent perception that radial glia cells are the neuronal progenitors that generate neurons in the cerebral cortex [22, 23]. The remaining adult neural stem cells found for example in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the rodent forebrain are derived from the embryonic radial glial population [24–26]. This strong relationship between radial glia and adult stem cells is further highlighted by the fact that adult NSCs can redifferentiate to radial glia . The finding that the G-CSF receptor is found on radial glial cells is therefore fully concordant with our data on the later expression of the receptor on adult neural stem cells [3, 28].
Implications from our finding are threefold: First, it adds a further dimension to the presence of the GCSF system in the nervous system (i.e. embryonic expression and a likely significance early in development of the nervous system). Second, it underlines the link between radial glial cells and adult neural stem cells where G-CSF has functional relevance. Third, our data provide a new and highly specific marker (G-CSFR) for radial glial cells throughout cortical neurogenesis.
Wistar rat embryos were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. 10 μm paraffin sections were deparaffinized and microwaved in citrate buffer. For G-CSF receptor staining sections were blocked in 1% H2O2 in TBS for 30 minutes at room temperature. After washing, incubation with the G-CSF receptor antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., sc-9173, 1:100) followed overnight at 4°C in a humid chamber. Staining was visualized after washing and secondary antibody incubation (anti-rabbit biotin, Dianova) using the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) technique with DAB as chromogen (DakoCytomation). In order to visualize the nuclei, sections were treated with haemalaun. The specifity of the G-CSF receptor staining is demonstrated by omission of the primary antibody (Additional file 2).
For double immunofluorescence with Nestin, the sections were blocked in 0,2% BSA/TBS followed by antibody incubation at 4°C overnight (anti-mouse nestin, Chemicon International, MAB353, 1:100) and G-CSF receptor antibody. Subsequent washing, sections were incubated for detection with the appropriate fluorescent dye-conjugated secondary antibodies (anti-mouse FITC and anti-rabbit Cy5, Dianova, 1:200). Nuclear staining was performed using Hoechst33342.
RNA of mouse brains (E14, 16, 18, P2) and mouse heads (E11, 12) respectively was isolated using phenol-chloroform extraction  followed by QIAGEN RNeasy Mini Kit purification according to the manufacturer's recommendations. cDNA was synthesized from 5 μg total RNA using oligo-dT primers and Superscript III Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen Corp.). The following primers were used for RT-PCR: mouse G-CSF-790s, GGA GCT CTA AGC TTC TAG ATC; mouse G-CSF-1154as, TAG GGA CTT CGT TCC TGT GAG; mouse G-CSF receptor-2582s, TGT GCC CCA ACC TCC AAA CCA; mouse G-CSF receptor-2817as, GCT AGG GGC CAG AGA CAG AGA CAC. Cycling conditions were as follows for G-CSFR: 5 minutes at 95°C, 30 seconds at 95°C, 30 seconds at 60°C, 30 seconds at 72°C for 34 cycles. The final extension time was 7 minutes at 72°C. For G-CSF, the same program was used after 2 cycles of a touchdown program from 64°C–62°C.
We thank Nadine Bischoff, Ulrike Bolz, Sandra Ellering and Claudia Heuthe for excellent technical assistance.
- Welte K, Platzer E, Gabrilove JL, Lu L, Levi E, Polivka A, Mertelsmann R, Moore MA: Purification to apparent homogeneity and biochemical characterization of human pluripotent hematopoietic colony-stimulating factor. Haematology and Blood Transfusion. 1985, 29: 398-401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Welte K, Platzer E, Lu L, Gabrilove JL, Levi E, Mertelsmann R, Moore MA: Purification and biochemical characterization of human pluripotent hematopoietic colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985, 82 (5): 1526-1530. 10.1073/pnas.82.5.1526.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schneider A, Kruger C, Steigleder T, Weber D, Pitzer C, Laage R, Aronowski J, Maurer MH, Gassler N, Mier W, Hasselblatt M, Kollmar R, Schwab S, Sommer C, Bach A, Kuhn HG, Schabitz WR: The hematopoietic factor G-CSF is a neuronal ligand that counteracts programmed cell death and drives neurogenesis. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2005, 115 (8): 2083-2098. 10.1172/JCI23559.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schneider A, Wysocki R, Pitzer C, Kruger C, Laage R, Schwab S, Bach A, Schabitz WR: An extended window of opportunity for G-CSF treatment in cerebral ischemia. BMC biology. 2006, 4: 36-10.1186/1741-7007-4-36.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sehara Y, Hayashi T, Deguchi K, Zhang H, Tsuchiya A, Yamashita T, Lukic V, Nagai M, Kamiya T, Abe K: Potentiation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis by G-CSF after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Brain research. 2007, 1151: 142-149. 10.1016/j.brainres.2007.01.149.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schabitz WR, Schneider A: New targets for established proteins: exploring G-CSF for the treatment of stroke. Trends in pharmacological sciences. 2007, 28 (4): 157-161. 10.1016/j.tips.2007.02.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramón y Cajal S: Études sur la Neurogenèse de Quelques Vertébrés. Tipografía Artística. 1929, Madrid , privately printed, 393-Google Scholar
- Super H, Del Rio JA, Martinez A, Perez-Sust P, Soriano E: Disruption of neuronal migration and radial glia in the developing cerebral cortex following ablation of Cajal-Retzius cells. Cereb Cortex. 2000, 10 (6): 602-613. 10.1093/cercor/10.6.602.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bussolino F, Wang JM, Defilippi P, Turrini F, Sanavio F, Edgell CJ, Aglietta M, Arese P, Mantovani A: Granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factors induce human endothelial cells to migrate and proliferate. Nature. 1989, 337 (6206): 471-473. 10.1038/337471a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bussolino F, Wang JM, Turrini F, Alessi D, Ghigo D, Costamagna C, Pescarmona G, Mantovani A, Bosia A: Stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger in human endothelial cells activated by granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor. Evidence for a role in proliferation and migration. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1989, 264 (31): 18284-18287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bussolino F, Ziche M, Wang JM, Alessi D, Morbidelli L, Cremona O, Bosia A, Marchisio PC, Mantovani A: In vitro and in vivo activation of endothelial cells by colony-stimulating factors. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1991, 87 (3): 986-995. 10.1172/JCI115107.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao LR, Navalitloha Y, Singhal S, Mehta J, Piao CS, Guo WP, Kessler JA, Groothuis DR: Hematopoietic growth factors pass through the blood-brain barrier in intact rats. Experimental neurology. 2007, 204 (2): 569-573. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.12.001.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shyu WC, Lin SZ, Yang HI, Tzeng YS, Pang CY, Yen PS, Li H: Functional recovery of stroke rats induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-stimulated stem cells. Circulation. 2004, 110 (13): 1847-1854. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000142616.07367.66.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee ST, Chu K, Jung KH, Ko SY, Kim EH, Sinn DI, Lee YS, Lo EH, Kim M, Roh JK: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances angiogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia. Brain research. 2005, 1058 (1-2): 120-128. 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.07.076.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deindl E, Zaruba MM, Brunner S, Huber B, Mehl U, Assmann G, Hoefer IE, Mueller-Hoecker J, Franz WM: G-CSF administration after myocardial infarction in mice attenuates late ischemic cardiomyopathy by enhanced arteriogenesis. Faseb J. 2006, 20 (7): 956-958. 10.1096/fj.05-4763fje.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schabitz WR, Kollmar R, Schwaninger M, Juettler E, Bardutzky J, Scholzke MN, Sommer C, Schwab S: Neuroprotective effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2003, 34 (3): 745-751.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hockfield S, McKay RD: Identification of major cell classes in the developing mammalian nervous system. J Neurosci. 1985, 5 (12): 3310-3328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parnavelas JG, Nadarajah B: Radial glial cells. are they really glia?. Neuron. 2001, 31 (6): 881-884. 10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00437-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rakic P: Guidance of neurons migrating to the fetal monkey neocortex. Brain research. 1971, 33 (2): 471-476. 10.1016/0006-8993(71)90119-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rakic P: Mode of cell migration to the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex. The Journal of comparative neurology. 1972, 145 (1): 61-83. 10.1002/cne.901450105.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heyman I, Faissner A, Lumsden A: Cell and matrix specialisations of rhombomere boundaries. Dev Dyn. 1995, 204 (3): 301-315.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malatesta P, Hartfuss E, Gotz M: Isolation of radial glial cells by fluorescent-activated cell sorting reveals a neuronal lineage. Development (Cambridge, England). 2000, 127 (24): 5253-5263.Google Scholar
- Noctor SC, Flint AC, Weissman TA, Dammerman RS, Kriegstein AR: Neurons derived from radial glial cells establish radial units in neocortex. Nature. 2001, 409 (6821): 714-720. 10.1038/35055553.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonfanti L, Peretto P: Radial glial origin of the adult neural stem cells in the subventricular zone. Prog Neurobiol. 2007, 83 (1): 24-36. 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2006.11.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fricker-Gates RA: Radial glia: a changing role in the central nervous system. Neuroreport. 2006, 17 (11): 1081-1084. 10.1097/01.wnr.0000230505.32726.65.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Merkle FT, Tramontin AD, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alvarez-Buylla A: Radial glia give rise to adult neural stem cells in the subventricular zone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004, 101 (50): 17528-17532. 10.1073/pnas.0407893101.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gregg C, Weiss S: Generation of functional radial glial cells by embryonic and adult forebrain neural stem cells. J Neurosci. 2003, 23 (37): 11587-11601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schneider A, Kuhn HG, Schabitz WR: A role for G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) in the central nervous system. Cell Cycle. 2005, 4 (12): 1753-1757.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chomczynski P, Sacchi N: Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Analytical biochemistry. 1987, 162 (1): 156-159. 10.1016/0003-2697(87)90021-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.