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Table 1 Immunoreactivity scores for E- and N-cadherin, β-catenin, TTF-1 and caveolin-1 in different types of pulmonary cells in developing human lung during various gestational periods.

From: Epithelial N-cadherin and nuclear β-catenin are up-regulated during early development of human lung

  Pseudo-glandular period
day 52-week 16
(13 cases)
Canalicular period
weeks 16-28
(17 cases)
Saccular period
weeks 28-36
(9 cases)
Alveolar period
weeks 36-40
(8 cases)
E-cadherin     
bronchus +++ +++ +++ ++
bronchiolus +++ +++ +++ ++
alveolus # + * + or ++ # + # +
endothelial cell negative negative negative negative
stromal cells negative negative negative negative
N-cadherin     
bronchus ++ ++ + (+)
bronchiolus + or ++ ++ + (+)
alveolus # negative or + negative negative negative
endothelial cell negative negative negative negative
stromal cells negative negative negative negative
β-catenin     
bronchus +++ m +++ m +++ m +++ m
bronchiolus +++ m +++ m +++ m +++ m
alveolus # +++ n * +++ n and m #++ m and (n) # ++ m and (n)
endothelial cell + + + +
stromal cells +++ n + n negative negative
TTF-1     
bronchus + + + +
bronchiolus ++ + or ++ + +
alveolus # +++ * +++ # + # +
endothelial cell negative negative negative negative
stromal cells negative negative negative negative
Caveolin-1 negative negative negative negative
bronchus negative negative negative negative
bronchiolus negative negative +++ +++
alveolus + + + +
endothelial cell
stromal cells
+ + + +
  1. # small developing airways, not alveoli: * pretype II cells: # type II pneumocytes
  2. m = membrane-bound positivity; n = nuclear positivity