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Table 1 Species tested for tetrodotoxin sensitivity

From: Long-term time-lapse live imaging reveals extensive cell migration during annelid regeneration

Phylum Class Species Exposure mode & concentration Effect Mortality over 24 hours Survival time Notes
Annelida Clitellata Pristina leidyi Immersion ~5–20 μM Total paralysis None >10 days  
Annelida Clitellata Paranais litoralis Immersion ~5–20 μM Total paralysis Low 3–5 days  
Annelida Clitellata Dero digitata Immersion ~5–20 μM Total paralysis None >5 days  
Annelida Clitellata Nais stolci Immersion ~5–20 μM Total paralysis None >5 days  
Annelida Clitellata Allonais paraguayensis Immersion ~5–20 μM Total paralysis None >5 days  
Annelida Clitellata Stylaria lacustris Immersion ~5–20 μM Total paralysis None >5 days  
Annelida Clitellata Lumbriculus variegatus Immersion ~5–20 μM Total paralysis None >5 days  
Annelida Polychaeta Aeolosoma hemprichi Immersion ~5–20 μM Partial paralysis None >5 days Worms retain ciliary motion
Annelida Polychaeta Glycera dibranchiata Injection ~20 μL, 6 μM Total paralysis None >4 days  
Platyhelmintha Tricladida Schmidtea mediterranea Immersion, injection, up to 6 mM None Not tested NA Moves by cilliary gliding
Hexapoda Insecta Papilio polytenes Injection ~20 μL, 6 μM High paralysis Low >3 days Retains slow contraction/distension movement
Tardigrada   Hypsibius dujardini Immersion up to 1 mM None Not tested NA  
Nemertea Heteronemertea Ramphogordius sanguineus Immersion, up to 60 μM Low-medium paralysis None >5 days Worms retain ciliary motion and keep gliding slowly
Nemertea Hoplonemertea Prostoma eilhardi Immersion, up to 60 μM None None >5 days Worms retain ciliary motion and keep gliding slowly
Mollusca Cephalopoda Loligo sp. Immersion, up to 60 μM Medium paralysis Low 1–2 days Tested on squid hatchlings only