Scale structures of hindwings of adults treated with thapsigargin at the pupal stage. The boxed areas of 3 individual wings shown on the left side were examined by bright-field microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (a) A normal wing. (b) A thapsigargin-treated wing. There are a lower number of cover scales (blue scales), resulting in the exposure of many ground scales (black scales). The cover scales themselves are dull in color, which may be because of the abnormal ridges of the fine-scale structures (right-most panel). (c) Another thapsigargin-treated wing. This wing is severely affected, with almost no cover scales. The ground scales are also dull in color, and the dark pigment appears to be distributed unevenly. The ridges of the fine-scale structures appear normal (right-most panel).