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Table 2 Feature comparisons of eight bat species during embryonic and fetal development.

From: A comparative study of prenatal development in Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti

   C. perspicillata a H. armiger b H. pratti b R. amplexicaudatus c
Stage Commen features Specific features UD CRL Specific features UD CRL Specific features UD CRL Specific features CRL
10 Neural tube and somite formation 4-12 somite pairs    5-12 somite pairs 7.00 ± 1.10 (2)       
11 Rostral neuropore closure; cranial flexure; 2 pharyngeal arches; optic evagination; otic vesicle 13-20 somite pairs    22 somite pairs; cervical flexure 7.42 ± 0.14 (2) 2.42 ± 0.03 (2) 22 somite pairs; cervical flexure 7.17 ± 0.02 (2) 2.69 ± 0.35 (2)   
12 Forelimb buds form; tail bud forms; caudal neuropore closes; 3 pharyngeal arches 21--29 somite pairs; cervical flexure 5.75 ± 0.64 3.4 ± 0.42         
13 Oral groove; optic cup; lens placode; hindlimb bud; forelimb AER 30-35 somite pairs           
14 Retinal pigment; genital tubercle 36-40 somite pairs; small nasal pits; propatagium and plagiopatagium primordia; hindlimb AER 6.95 ± 0.44 5.35 ± 0.24 36 somite pairs; round nasal pits 9.58 (1) 5.14 (1) 40 somite pairs; round nasal pits 8.86 (1) 5.52 (1)   
15 Lens vesicles; auditory hillocks Hand and foot plates; external auditory meatus 8.65 ± 1.20 7.45 ± 0.92     40 somite pairs; hand plate 11.10 (1) 7.80 (1)   
16 Naris; pinna Eyelid primordium; nose-leaf primordium; tragus; vibrissal folicles; forelimb digital condensations; uropatagium primordium 12.06 ± 1.45 8.66 ± 1.05     Nose-leaf primordium; external auditory meatus; pinna; antitragus; foot plate 12.90 (1) 9.52 (1) Vibrissal folicles; antitragus; calcar primordium; forelimb digital condensations; hindlimb interdigit tissue receding 8.5 (2)
17   Eyes begin to close; tongue out; chin wart; unicorn bump; hindlimb interdigit tissue receding 13.45 ± 1.34 9.15 ± 1.34 Hindlimb interdigit tissue receding; uropatagium primordium 15.00 (1) 12.38 (1)     Hindlimb interdigit tissue receding 9.4 (1)
18 Head and body smoother, rounder Free thumb; free toes; calcar; flexure at wrist; uropatagium enclose the whole tail 16.32 ± 0.98 12.35 ± 1.16 12 pairs of ribs; eyes begin to close; 1st supplementary leaflet; frontal sac primordium; free thumb; free toes; calcar 17.05 ± 0.43 (3) 13.11 ± 0.44 (3)     Oral papillae; free thumb; free toes; claw primordia 13.4 (1)
19   Claw primordia    2nd supplementary leaflet; flexure at wrist; claw primordia; uropatagium enclose the whole tail 18.98 ± 1.02 (2) 15.66 ± 0.81 (2) 1st supplementary leaflet; vibrissal folicles; uropatagium enclose the whole tail   16.79 ± 1.68 (2)   16.1 (1)
20 Distal forelimbs overlap over face Eyelids closed 20.0 ± 3.54 16.35 ± 1.06 Eyelids closed; 3rd supplementary leaflet; vibrissal folicles 20.13 ± 0.71 (2) 18.50 ± 0.32 (2) Eyelids closed; nose-leaves achieve adult appearance   18.95 ± 0.07 (2) Eyelids closed 16.3-20.7 (5)
21       22.52 ± 0.34 (2) 19.39 ± 0.25 (2)      
22 Wing membranes corrugated Nose-leaf; eyelids reopening; claws pigmented, hooked 23.03 ± 2.68 20.02 ± 0.26 Claws pigmented, hooked 23.78 ± 1.68 (3) 22.04 ± 0.37 (3) Claws pigmented, hooked 23.04 (1) 21.44 (1) Genitals begin dimorphic differentiation 17.2-28.6 (3)
23       25.77 ± 0.57 (3) 23.58 ± 0.13 (3)    24.86 (1)   
Fetal Vibrissae; short hair widespread on dorsal parts Eyes completely open 23.53 ± 0.64 21.13 ± 0.06 Nose-leaves achieve adult appearance; genitals begin dimorphic differentiation 38.58 ± 6.82 (5) 36.48 ± 5.36 (5) Genitals begin dimorphic differentiation 34.23 (1) 33.31 (1) Pigmentation in palpebral line 27.3-44.4 (5)
   M. schreibersii fuliginosus b M. natalensis d P. abramus e M. rufus f
Stage Commen features Specific features UD CRL Specific features UD CRL Specific features CRL Specific features UD CRL
10 Neural tube and somite formation        7 somite pairs 2.3    
11 Rostral neuropore closure; cranial flexure; 2 pharyngeal arches; optic evagination; otic vesicle        10-12 somite pairs; cervical flexure 2.3-2.6    
12 Forelimb buds form; tail bud forms; caudal neuropore closes; 3 pharyngeal arches     27 somite pairs 5.8 ± 0.12 (3) 3.7 ± 0.94 (3) 16-18 somite pairs 2.1-2.2    
13 Oral groove; optic cup; lens placode; hindlimb bud; forelimb AER 31 somite pairs 6.31 ± 0.38 (2) 4.22 ± 0.11 (2)   8.0 ± 2.09 (11) 5.2 ± 0.26 (11) 25-28 somite pairs; hindlimb AER; long nasal pits 2.6-4.1 33-36 somite pairs 5.0 (1) 5.0 (1)
14 Retinal pigment; genital tubercle 42 somite pairs; long nasal pits; propatagium and plagiopatagium primordia; hindlimb AER 8.39 ± 0.48 (3) 5.85 ± 0.49 (3) Long nasal pits; propatagium and plagiopatagium primordia; hindlimb AER 9.0 ± 1.01 (18) 5.9 ± 0.80 (18) Hand plate 4.1-5.7 37-40 somite pairs; long nasal pits; propatagium primordia; hindlimb AER 8.0-9.5 (3) 5.8-7.0 (3)
15 Lens vesicles; auditory hillocks 42 somite pairs; 10 pairs of ribs; external auditory meatus; forelimb digital condensations; foot plate 9.92 ± 1.47 (3) 7.19 ± 0.71 (3) Forelimb digital condensations; foot plate 10.4 ± 0.81 (21) 7.3 ± 0.75 (21) Plagiopatagium primordium; foot plate 5.9 Plagiopatagium primordia; hand and foot plates 10-10.5 (2) 7.2-9.0 (2)
16 Naris; pinna Eyelid primordium; tragus; uropatagium primordium 11.27 ± 0.52 (4) 8.28 ± 0.48 (4) Tragus; hindlimb digital condensations; hindlimb interdigit tissue receding; uropatagium primordium 11.8 ± 0.83 (26) 9.1 ± 0.68 (26) Tragus; hindlimb interdigit tissue receding 5.6-7.2 Antitragus; vibrissal folicles; uropatagium primordium; fore- and hindlimb digital condensations 10.0-12.0 (2) 9.7-10.0 (2)
17   Eyes begin to close; vibrissal folicles; chin wart; hindlimb interdigit tissue receding 12.96 ± 0.78 (3) 9.59 ± 0.54 (3) Vibrissal folicles 12.2 ± 1.02 (31) 10.5 ± 0.63 (31) Vibrissal folicles; free thumb; free toes; propatagium 9.1 cervical flexure absent; fore- and hindlimb interdigit tissue receding 11.0 (1) 11.4 (1)
18 Head and body smoother, rounder Free thumb; free toes; flexure at wrist; calcar 13.88 ± 1.95 (2) 10.48 ± 1.56 (2) Free thumb 13.0 ± 1.33 (10) 12.0 ± 0.80 (10) Eyelids closed; claw primordia 10.6-11.2 Eyes begin to close; free thumb; claw primordia 12.0-13.0 (4) 12.0-13.5 (4)
19   Claw primordia    Claw primordia; calcar 13.1 ± 1.28 (4) 12.8 ± 0.69 (4)      
20 Distal forelimbs overlap over face Eyelids closed; tooth primordium; uropatagium enclose the whole tail 17.46 ± 1.12 (2) 14.44 ± 0.82 (2) Eyelids closed; uropatagium enclose the whole tail 14.3 ± 0.35 (2) 14.4 ± 0.82 (2) Claws hooked; uropatagium enclose the whole tail 12.7 Eyelids closed 13.5-14.5 (2) 16.7-18.5 (2)
21      Claws pigmented, hooked 15.3 (1) 15.7 (1)     19.0 (1) 19.0 (1)
22 Wing membranes corrugated          Eyelids reopening; teeth formed 19.0 (1) 28.0 (1)
23   Genitals begin dimorphic differentiation 18.90 (1) 17.30 (1)         
Fetal Vibrissae; short hair widespread on dorsal parts   22.99 ± 4.71 (4) 23.09 ± 5.91 (4)      17.4    
  1. UD: uterus diameter (mm); CRL: crown rump length (mm); AER: apical ectodermal ridge. The average UD and CRL are given with standard deviation or the range of measurements. The number of specimens is given in the parenthesis.
  2. a Data from Cretekos et al. [5]; b Data from current study; c Data from Giannini et al. [7]; d Data from Hockman et al. [4]; e Data from Tokita [6]; f Data from Nolte et al. [8].